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ARABISTON QABL AZ ISLOM

Jaziratularab az nazari jugrofi haddiaqal ba se mintaqa taqsim meshavad: Arabistoni Janubi, ki sarzamini YAman va Hadramautro dar bar megirad, Arabistoni Markaziyu Garbi, ki mintaqai Tihoma va Hijozro faro megirad va nihoyat Arabistoni SHimoli, ki dar sarhadhoi shimolii SHom \ Suriya\ va Iroqi muosir intiho meyobad. Qismati ziyodi in sarzaminro biyoboni tafson va sahrohoi be obu alaf, chun regzorhoi “Rubul-kholi”, “Ihqof”, “Dahno” va gayra tashkil mekunad. Az in ru seyaki khoki in sarzamin be obu darakht buda, qobili sukunat nest. Nohiyahoi asosii Jaziratularab panjtoand: Tihoma, Hijoz, Najd, YAman va Aruz. Iqlimi Arabiston asosan garm buda, dar qismathoi sohili rutubatnok va baze manotiqi on nisbatan mutadil meboshad. Az nigohi tarikhi tamadduni in se mintaqa yakrang nestand. Dar Arabistoni Janubi mintaqai Hadramaut, ki dar sarchashmahoi yunoni “khushbakht” \GEIH\ nomida shudaast, osori tamadduni kuhan jo-jo mushohida gardidaast va ammo Arabistoni Markazi- vodii Hijoz va qismati sohilii on Tihoma dar tarikhi tamadduni jahoni hej naqshi muassire to paydoishi islom nadoshtaand. Dar qismati shimolii in nimjazira agar tamaddunhoi kuhani hamsoya: oshuri va bobuli, akodiro ba nazar nagirem hej nav tamadduni nazarrasi sof arabi dida nameshavad.

kabai tarikhi dar zamoni kadimAz lihozi siyosi niz holati Arabiston to paydoishi islom gunogun budaast. Dar janub, to andozae osori umumiyathoi siyosi, sokhtoru dastgohi nisbatan mushakhkhasi davlatii vobasta yo mukhtor, qabl az islom ba chashm mekhurad. Dar asri UTUI qabilai asosi va hokimi in mintaqa-Kindiyon budand. Ogozi saltanati kindiyonro hatto ba asri III melodi nisbat medihand. Dar arafai paydoishi islom in mintaqa qisman vassali imperiyai shohanshohii Eron bud. Qismati shimolii Arabiston niz mustaqiliyati tom nadosht va in manotiq goh zeri tasiri Eroni sosoni va goh zeri tasiru qalamravi Rum va dar ibtidoi asri VII bayni in hardu taqsim shuda bud. Du qabilai asosii sokini in mintaqa Lahmidiyon va Gassoniyon budand. Avvalin, dar shimolu sharqi Arabiston, mintaqahoi garbii Iroqi imruza sukunat doshtaand. SHahri markazii onho Hira vassali Eron bud. Duvvumin, dar qismati shimolu garbi sukunat doshtaand. Gassoniyon, ki nasroni buda, zeri tasiri imperaturii Vizantiya \Rum\ qaror doshtand va dar rushdu takomuli adabiyotu zaboni arab tasiri ziyode guzoshtaand. Dar in mintaqa, niz zeri tasiri in du imperiya, sokhtorhoi muayyani siyosie ba vujud omadand. Makhsusan, davrai hokimiyati bistsolai volii lahmidi Numon ibni al-Munzir davrai qudrat giriftani lahmidiyon ba shumor meravad. Ammo dar Arabistoni markazi to zuhur va qudrat yoftani islom hej guna sokhtori siyosii klassiki, ki shabeh ba sistemahoi siyosii marufi onruz boshad payodo namekunem. Tarzi zindagi va qonuni ijtimoiyu idorii in mintaqa ustuvor ba munosibot va qonunhoi nonavishtai qabilaviyu avlodi budand. SHahrhoi asosii on ba tartib: Makka, Madina, Toyif shahrhoi khudmukhtor ba shumor meraftand, vale biduni dastgohi siyosiyu tashkiloti idori. Baze umuri iqtisodiyu tijorati va siyosi masalan jang, tashkil va tadoruki korvonhoi tijorati va gayra dar asosi muvofiqati raison va shaykhoni qaboil hallu fasl meshudand.

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