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ASOSHOI TALIMOTI ISLOM

Usuli din va aqoid

Ulamoi islom dar masalai tabaqabandi va ba sistema darovardani talimoti islomi ikhtilofi nazar dorand. Tarikhan dar islom in masala ba se bakhsh: aqoid, akhloq va ahkom judo karda meshavad.

  • Aqoid (jami aqida) on qismati talimoti jazmiyavi (tagyirnopazir yo ahkomi)-i islomro menomand, ki mumin boyad bar on etiqodu imon doshta boshad. On iborat az se masalai asasi yo usulii ilohiyot dar talimoti islom: tavhid (yaktoparasti), nubuvvat (payombari) va maod (hayoti ukhravi yo pasazmargi, ondunyovi) ast.
  • Akhloq meyorho va muqarraroti manaviyu khulqi dar munosiboti bayni insonho meboshad, ki boyad rui aslpoyahoi zerin: vijdon, adolat, taqvo, shujoat, iffat, hikmat, istiqomat, vafo va gayra ustuvor boshad. Dar doirai talimoti akhloqi inchunin, muarrafii muharramot, muhlikot va nahiyot, yane shinosoii akhloqu raftori mangardidai noshoistavu noravo va amalu kirdori nopisand jihati jilavgiri az suduri onho niz, dokhil meshavad.
  • Ahkom, yane masoili huququ masuliyathoi musalmonon nisbat ba koru zindagi va umuri ijtimoiyu siyosi, iqtisodi, ibodat va gayra.

Tayr az in hamai talimoti islomro ba usul (jami. asl) va furui din taqsim kardaand va muvofiq on talimoti asosi yo aslii islom panj ( dar mutazila, shia va baze firqahoi sunni) va yo dar baze adabiyothoi digar hashto ast va onho iboratand az: tavhid, adl, nubuvvat, imomat, maod, amri maruf va nahyi az munkar, tabarro (dusti khudoro dust shumoridan) va tazarro (dushmani khudoro dushman donistan) ast.

In taqsimbandihoi annavi na hamai doirai mavzuote talimoti dini balkt tanho talimoti usulii islomro faro giriftaand. Dar onho, haddi aqal talimoti islom dar borai hasti va ofarinishi on, tasavvuroti kayhonii olam, maqomi inson dar on, yane antropologiyavu naturfilosofiyai islom dar alohidagi joy nadorad, tanho khelo mukhtasar dar bobi aqoid bahshoi mukhtasare shudaast. Hol on ki domani talimoti quroni khele farokhtar az doirai usuli din ast. Masalan, bobi khilqat va insonshinosii quroni nazar ba talimoti adyoni digari ibrohimi gusturdatar ast va dar muqoisa bo yahudiya va nasroniya tozagihoe dorad.

Dar zaminai talimoti islomi, ki qablan yod shud, se sohai ulumi islomi bo vujud omadaand, ki iboratand az: ilmikalom, ilmiakhloq va ilmi fiqh.

YAke az bakhshkhoi ilmi kalom aqoid meboshad. Aqoid bayoni mukhtasari talimoti islom dar shakli izhori etiqodi mumin ba on ast. Va on qabl az hama donistan va etiqod doshtan va amal kardan ba panj arkoni islom:

  • guftani kalimai tayibai shahodatayn-yane bo zabon guftani “Ashhadu anna lo- Iloha illaAlloha va ashhadu anna Muhammadan rasul-Alloh”-yane shahodat mediham (mutaqidam), ki Hudoe ba juz Alloh nest va shahodat mediham, ki Muhammad firistodai khudost.”

-guzoshtani panj vaqt namoz dar yak shabonaruz,

  • giriftani 30 ruz ruzai mohi Ramazon,
  • dodani zakoti mol,
  • anjom dodani hajji Honai Hudo dar surati qudratu tavonoi va imkon doshtan.

Soniyan, etiqodu imon doshtan ba yagonagii Hudo, maloik, kutubi ilohi, ruzi qiyomat va hisobu kitob va jannatu duzakh va gayra ki dar kitobhoi aqoid mufassal bayon shudaand.

Dar boramon

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