Home / Ilm / Afkori jamyaiyaty- siyosii khalqi tochik dar davrai kadim va asrhoi miyona.

Afkori jamyaiyaty- siyosii khalqi tochik dar davrai kadim va asrhoi miyona.

Halki tochik-khalqi sokhibdavlat va tamadunofar az davrai qadim dar chahon malum va mashhur meboshad.
Tarikh guvoh ast, ki guzashtagoni mo bo ofaridani yake az qadimtarin kitobhoi muqaddasi chahony- «Avesto», «SHohonamai Firdavsy, shohasarhoi sohai tibby Abualy ibni Sino va namoyandagoni sohahoi digari ilm malum va mashhur meboshand.
Az in chihat omukhtani tarikhi afkori siyosii halq dar tarbiyai vatandustiyu vatandory, insondusty, chahonshinosy, iftikhori milly, ananahoi neki achdodon baroi baland bardoshtani satkhi madanii tolibilmon naqshi ziyod mebozad.
YAke az avvalinho namunai afkori chamiyati achdodoni mo kitobi muqaddasi dini Zardushty «Avesto» meboshad.
Talaffuzi asosii «Avesto» «apastak» buda, manoi «asos»-ro ifoda menamoyad.Dar borai makon va zamoni echod shudani «Avesto» dar bayni olimon akidahoi mukhtalif choy dorad.Ba akida aksari muhaqqiqon kitob dar asri VI to melod echod shudaast.Muallifi Avesto» payambari Ibrohimi Zardusht meboshad.
Az ri rivoyatho Zardusht badi az khudoi oly Ahura Mazdo payom giriftan ba nazdi shohi Bokhtar Vishtosp omada,uro ba dini nav davat mekunad. Vishtosp dinro paziroy karda mardumro ba on davat mekunad.
«Avesto» dar duvozdah hazor pusti gov bo khati zarin navishta shuda bud.Kitob az tarafi Iskandar suzonda shuda bud.Badtar dar zamoni Arshakiyon dar asri 1 to melod az nav barqaror karda shud.
Dar zamoni Sosoniyon bo suporishi SHopuri II kitob az nav navisht shuda, ki nomi «Zand – Avesto»-ro girift. Dar ayni hol az kitob hamagy 23-hazor kalima boki mondaast, ki on az 5- fasl iborat ast: 1.YAn-qurbony va ibodat. 2. YAsht- sitoish va khushraftory. 3. Videvdat konuni ziddi devho.4.Visparat hukumronii mutlaq.5. Hurd Avesto – zoriyu ilticho. Muvofiki Avesto zamin kurashakl buda, az haft iqlim iborat meboshad. Iklimi markazy Hivanarasa nom doshta, nakhust vatani oriyonho Aryanei Vaychakh dar on choygir bud. Aksari 16-kishvari dar kitob nombar shuda, dar Osiyoi Miyona va Huroson choygir meboshand.
Asosi talimoti dinii qabilahoi erony dar on zamonho dar asosi oinho va asotirhoi kadimy ba vuchud omadaast.
Tadkikothoi tarikhi sobit menamoyandki Zardusht dar asrhoi VII-VI pesh az melod. yo khud solhoi 628-551 umr ba sar burdaast.
Nomi padarash Porushaspa nomi modarash Dugdova budaast. Vay takhminan dar sini 42-solagiash ba unvoni paygambary sokhib meshavad. Okhiri hayoti u dar Balkh meguzarad. Badi 35-soli payambary az tarifi dushmani goyaviash Balatnarsat kushta meshavad.
Asosii talimoti dini Zardushtro etiqod va parastishii khudoi yakka va yagona ofaridagiri odamu olam Akhura Mazdo meboshad.
Mazmuni ijtimoii islohoti dini Zardusht, hayoti osoishtai barzgaron va chorvodoroni mukimnishini talab mekard.
Baroi oini dini Zardusht dualizm khos ast- ziddiyati doimii du kuvva-ravshany va toriky, neky va bady, rost va durug dar hayoti chamyaiyaty choy dorand. Tachassumi kuvvai neky Akhuromzodo (Hurmuz) va kuvvai bady Angramanyu (Akhriman) bud. Payravoni in din dar shakhsiyati Akhriman devonro hamchun himoyatgari kuvvai bady va dushmanon mepindoshtand.
Dar dini zardushty digar khudoho: Oftob-Mitra, khudoi hak Rishanu, khudoi Otash- Ahuramazdo, khudoi hosilu barakat- Ardvisur, khudoi jang-Bahrom parastish karda meshudand. Zardushtiyon fazo va vaktro behudud mepindoshtand. Tamomi fazo ba du kismi-neky va ravshanii Ahuramzdo va toriky va badii Ahriman judo meshud. Zamin kurrashakl buda, osmon az se qabat iborat ast: qabati sitoraho, qabati mohtob va kabati Oftob. Az oftob bolo bihishti Ahuramazdo joy dorad. Dar poyonboshad, jahoni tropiky joyi devho va duzakh joygir ast. Ziroatchigy va chorvodory kori khayr donista meshud.
Payravoni in oin rosqavliro kori nek mepindoshtand. Otash ob va zamin toza nigoh doshta shavad.
Dar nazdi otashkadaho har guna kurboniho mekardand. Har sol shash marotiba panjruzi id mekardand. Soli Zardusht az 12 moh va har ruz nomhoi khudohoro doshtand. Oini zardushti koidai makhsusi dafni jasadi murda (mahrumon) dosht. Hej kas haq nadosht, ki jasadro dar zamin guronad. Zamine, ki dar on jo odam murdaast, dar muddati yak sol istifoda karda nameshud. Dar khonae, ki murda bud dar zimiston bad az nuh ruz va tobiston bad az yak moh otash girondan mumkin bud. CHasadro du murdakash ba rui
sanglokhho burda, az poy va muyhoyash mebastand. Badi chand muddat ustukhonho jam karda,dar sandukhoi safoly meguzoshtand. Murdakashho az ob va otash to 30 qadam va az odamon 3- qadam boyad dur istand.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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