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Ahkom va odobe, ki bar asosi majmuai favq bino yoftaand

Az machmui oyatho va ahodise, ki dar borai ruzai mohi Ramazon
nozil va sobit shudaand, fakehoni kirom ahkom va odobero dar borai
ruza va shakhsi ruzador istinbot kardand, ki muhimtarini onhoro dar
in cho zikr menamoem: 
Ahkom:
1. Giriftani ruzai mohi Ramazon bar shakhse, ki ba sinni taklif
rasida boshad, farz ast.
2. SHakhsi bemor sharan metavonad ruzai mohi Ramazonro bikhu-
rad, khoh bemoriash pesh az daromadani mokhi Ramazon ba vuchud omada
boshad, khoh pas az oozi ruza, vale pas az barqaror gardidani saloma-
tiash boyad qazoi onro ba joy ovarad.
Bemorie, ki ba sababi on khurdani ruza baroi shakhs joiz megardad,
on bemorie ast, ki ba sababi ruza doshtan ziyod shavad va yo dar shifoyo-
biash takhir aftad.
3. SHakhse hangomi hululi mokhi Ramazon dar safar boshad va yo pas
az faro rasidani on ba safar baroyad, sharan baroyash ijozat ast, ki
ruzaro bikhurad va pas az bozgasht qazoi onro ba joy ovarad.
Ammo dar borai safare, ki khurdani ruza ba sababi on joiz me-
gardad, dar miyoni faqehoni kirom nazaroti gunogun vuchud dorad. a)
Az nazari imom Abuhanifa (rh) khurdani ruza tanho dar safarhoi
shari, yane safare, ki ba niyati se ruza roh boshad, joiz ast va dar
kamtar az on joiz nest. b) Az nazari imom SHofei (rh) dar safari yak
shabonaruza choiz ast. v) Nazari baze olimoni digar on ast, ki khur-
dani ruza dar hamai safarho joiz ast va on ba muddate mahdud name-
boshad, zero dar oyat ba tavri mutlaq omadaast va ba chize mahdud sokhta
nashudaast.
Az nazari chumhuri faqehon giriftan va yo khurdani ruza dar safar
rukhsat, yane ikhtiyori ast va har musofire bo tanosubi holi khud meta-
vonad ba yake az onho amal namoyad. Agar dar safar ruza dorad, ruzaash
joiz megardad va agar iftor namoyad, on niz baroyash ijozat ast, vale
pas az bozgasht qazoi onro boyad ba joy ovarad.
4. Piramard va pirazane, ki az mador raftaand va giriftani ru-
za baroyashon sakhti va mashaqqate ba bor meovarad, sharan baroyashon
ijozat ast, ki ruzaashonro bikhurand va ba joi har ruzi on ba andozai
taomi miskine fidya dihand. Digar qazoe bar onho vojib nest.
Bemore, ki digar baroi behbudiash umede namondaast, niz dar in
hukm shomil meboshad. In guna bemor niz ba joi har ruzi khurdaash ba
andozai taomi miskine fidya medihad. Bemoroni barjomonda (muz-
min) va giriftoroni bemorihoe, ki oliban darmonnopazirand, ba
in guna bemoron dokhil meshavand.
5. Zanone, ki dar holati hayz va yo nifos qaror dorand, sharan
bar onho vojib ast, ki az giriftani ruza khuddori namoyand va pas az
pok gardidan qazoi onro ba joy ovarand. Ruza doshtan baroyashon mam-
nu ast. 
6. Zanoni homila va shirdeh agar bar khud va yo tifli shirkhora-
ashon khavf barand, sharan baroyashon ijozat ast, ki ruzaro bikhurand
va pas az vazi haml va chudo shudani tifl az shir kazoi onro ba joy
ovarand. CHumhuri ahli sunnat ittifoki nazar dorand, ki zanoni ho-
mila va shirdeh pas az vazi haml va chudo shudani tifl az shir boyad
kazoi ruzaro ba joy ovarand, vale dar pardokhti fidya nukta nazaroti
onho gunogun meboshad.
Hukmi masala dar in jo har du guruhi zanoni shirdehro dar bar
megirad: a) zanone, ki ba farzandoni khudashon shir medihand va b) za-
none, ki ba haysi doya ba farzandoni shakhsoni digar shir medihand.
7. Dar holati gurusnagi va tashnagii sakhte, ki bar halokat va yo
naksi akli va jismonii shakhsi ruzador khavf burda shavad, khurdani ruza
choiz ast. Masalan, agar az shiddati gurusnagi va yo tashnagi dar mohi
Ramazon khavfi az dast dodani binoi baroi ruzador pesh oyad, khurdani
ruza baroyash choiz megardad. In holat aksaran baroi onhoe pesh meoyad,
ki mashguli korhoi sakhti jismony hastand va baroi tarki on chorae na-
dorand. Fakehoni kirom in holatro ba holi shakhsi bemor, ki sharan
baroi vay khurdani ruza ijozat doda shudaast, kiyos kardaand.
Sohibi «Rad» pas az barrasii mavzu mefarmoyad: «CHize, ki dar
masalai shakhsi korgar boyad gufta shavad, in ast, ki agar ba andozai
kifoya baroi nafakai khud va ayolash pulu mol doshta boshad, khurdani
ruza (bo bahonai kasb) baroyash halol nest va dar gayri on metavonad
ba kadri kifoya kor kunad va agar in amr vayro ba khurdani ruza maj-
bur sozad, on baroyash joiz megardad, vakte dar iri on imkoni kor
kardan nadoshta boshad. Hamchunin agar az talaf shudani ziroat va ho-
sil va yo duzdida shudani on khavf barad va kasero nayobad, ki baroyash
bo muzd kor kunad, metavonad ruzaashro bikhurad va kazoi onro pas az
bartaraf shudani on holat ba joy ovarad, hamin tavr shakhse baroi
kor bo kase karordod basta boshad va dar vakti Ramazon sohibi kor
ba faskhi on rozi nashavad, metavonad ruzaashro bikhurad».
Pas holathoe, ki khurdan va yo nagiriftani ruza dar onho joiz ast
va uzrhoi shari ba shumor meravand, shash chizand: a) bemori, b) sa-
far, v) piri va kalonsoli, v) hayzu nifos, g) homilagi va shirdihi, d)
gurusnagi va tashnaaii sakht.
Dar panj holati on: bemori, safar, hayzu nifos, homilagiyu shir-
dihi va gurusnagiyu tashnagii sakht pas az bartaraf gardidani uzrhoi
nomburda kazoi ruza bar shakhs vojib ast. Ammo dar holati piri va ha-
min tavr bemorie, ki digar ba behbudii bemor umede nest, bar shakhs
tanho fidya vojib megardad va qazoe bar vay nest.
8. Dar shabhoi mohi Ramazon tamomi mamnuoti zohirii ruza bar-
doshta shudaand va baroi ruzador pas az furu raftani oftob to dami-
dani subkh, khurdanu nushidan va nazdiky bo zanon joiz ast. Vale baroi
shakhsi mutakif nazdiky bo zanon mamn meboshad. Zero vay ibodati
digarero bo nomi etikof bar ruzai mohi Ramazon afzudaast, ki on ta-
labot va ahkomi khudro dorad va nazdiky bo zanon onro fosid mesozad.
Odob va mustahabbot:
1. Huddory az behudagy, badzabony va badraftory. Zero khuddory
az khostahoi shikamu farj kamtarin va yo majmuai zohirii mamnuoti
ruzaro tashkil medihand, dar hole ki hadafi asosii ruza rasidani ba
tako va khudsozii shakhsi ruzador ast va in majmua vakte baroi ruza-
dor hosil meshavad, ki kadamhoi barjastae dar ravandi khudsozy va ta-
komuli janbahoi insonii khud bardorad.
2. CHiddu jahd dar duovu ibodat, tilovati Quron va digar amal-
hoe, ki dar tashakkuli javhari shakhsiyati inson tasiri bevositae do-
rand. Zero in moh fursati notakror va lahzahoi munosibero baroi
qabuli duovu ibodat va digar amalhoi nek dar ikhtiyori u meguzorad
va Hudovand ijobati duo, ibodatho va digar amoli bandaro dar in
moh kafolat dodaast.
3. Tajili iftor va takhiri saharihury niz az jumlai sunnathoi
Rasuli Hudo (s) va behtarin odobi farizai ruza dar Islom hastand va
ruzai mo az ruzai ummatoni peshin bo hamin chizho fark mekunad.
4. Pesh az namozi shom kushodani ruza niz az jumlai sunnathoi
Rasuli Hudo (s) dar in moh meboshad.
5. Dar saharhoi mohi Ramazon bo payravy az sunnati Rasuli Hudo
(s) va ba khotiri barakat chize, harchand jurai obe ham boshad, khurdan.
6. Etikofi dahai okhirro baroi safoi beshtari ruh va tazkiyai
nafs ganimat donistan.
7. Hangomi iftor va saharikhury boyad dar khurdanu nshidan meyor
va andozai muayyane rioya gardad, zero purkhury na az nazari shar mat-
lub va pisandida ast va na az nazari tib.
Vakte inson purkhury mekunad, tamomi badan dar hamohangy bo
dastgohi hozima muddate ba tavri toqatfarso va bolotar az doirai
tavonash ba hazm, korkard va qabuli hajmi ziyodi mavodi khuroky mash-
gul megardad va in holat dar ayni hole ki ba salomatii inson dar
majmu zarar dorad, uro az puyoy va bolandagii ruhy niz bozmedorad.
Ore, namozi taroveh baroi ba etidol daromadani vazi chunin oda-
mon vasilai khube meboshad, vale odame, ki az shiddati purkhury ba zur
khamu rost meshavad va khudro az orugu damishi shikam ba hole nigah me-
dorad, digar chi bakhrae az manaviyoti namoz ba dast meovarad.

Dar boramon

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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