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Anjumani khudoyoni bobili

Nakhustin majmu yo anjuman ( panteon*)-i khudoyoni mutaadid dar tamadduni shumeri ba vujud omadaand, ki nom va shumori on khudoyon afzun az chahor hazor ast. Va har yake az in khudoyon namude- mazhare, tajassumi juzie az quvvahoi tabiat budand. Az jumla:

  • – Anu, parvardigori osmon, khudoi buzurgi shahri Erek bud.
  • – Ki – khudoi zamin
  • – Enkhil ( yo Enlil)- parvardigori fazo, havoi favqony va khudoi jangjuvu muborizi shahri Nippur.
  • – Sin – Hudoi moh,
  • Nannu( yoZuena) khudoi shahri Ur.
  • Inanna- khudoimuhofizishahri Uruk (hazorai 4 t.m.) khudoiishqva jang
  • – Bobbar, ki badhoi nomi SHamas hosil kard – khudoi osmon va oftob dar shahri Larsa.
  • ‘)iki (ba z. aqodi-Ea) – khudoi modda (modari kull) va onro khudoi Ishtar ham meguftand, khudoi shahri Kish (baze guftaand sh.Eredu).[1]

madrukIn khudoyon chun dar digar markazhoi tamadduni qadim khususiyati odamgunagi (antropomorfi) doshtand, onho bo ham misli insonho muoshirat mekardand, nisbat ba yakdigar mehrubon budand va ajibtar az hama, dar Bobil hej khudoe ibodati khudoi digarro man namefarmudaast. Badan dar in jo niz misli on chi dar Misr bud, yakchand khudoyon bo ham yak shuda, olami vujudro bayni khud taqsim mekunand. Masalan, zamone Anu, Enill va Era ba tartib saltanati osmon, zamin va obhoi zeri zaminro bayni khud taqsim karda budand. In nav ittihodi segona (taslis) badan ham, hangomi rushdu takomuli ziroat va kishovarzi dar surathoi digare joy doshtand. Masalan, ittihod yo tarkibi khudoi SHamas-khudoi Oftob, Sin-khudoi Moh va Ishtar khudoi modar hosilkhezi va bovari.

Madrukh (yo Madruk) buzurgtarin khudoi Bobil buda, ba Ishtar raqib meboshad. In marhalai duvvumin, marhalai navi tarkibyobii khudoyon az bisyorkhudoi ba sui yakto parasti bud, harchand onho to ba in darajavu sath narasidaand.

Asli aqoidi dinii bobuliyon dar hamosaho va asotir mundarij gardidaand. Az jumla, in asotir dar bisyor mavrid bo aqoide, ki badho dar oini zardushtiyon dida meshavad va bo mavzu va rivoyathoi tavrotii yahudiyon shabohat va hatto ayniyat dorand. Az jumla, muborizai khudoyoni nuru rushnoi va olihai nazmu oromish bo ajdahoi daryoi zulmat-Tiomat khelo jolib ast. Muborizai nur va zulmat dar dini monaviya, ki badan khohem did, in usturaro ba yod meorad. Digar tasavvurot dar borai ibtidoi paydoishi olam, hodisai obkhezi -«tufoni Nuh» (obi azob) va gayra, ki dar Tavrot badan dokhil shudaand, aynan shabohat bo tasavvuroti dinii bobiliyon dorand. Alalkhusus, asotiri kosmogongii shumerivu bobili dar borai paydoishi olam va ofarida shudani inson, gufta metavon dar tashakkuli kosmogoniyai dinhoi somi tasiri ziyod doshtaand. Dar navbati khud dostoni furu raftani Ishtar ba sarzamini murdagon va ramziyoti on shabohat bo mazmunhoi avastoi va aqoidi kosmologii tozardushtii eroni(usturai Ymo) dorad.

[1]   Jon Nos. Tarikhi jomei adyon.-S.45-46. Va hamchunin nig.: Ali Asgari Hikmat. Tarikhi adyon. CHopi Gute.CH.5.-1371.- S. 70., va Istoriya vsemirnoy literaturi M.: Nauka.-1983.-S.86-88.

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