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Asli ADL dar din

Adl-  duvvumin asl az usuli dini islom va ismi sifate az sifoti Hudost, vale chun in asl tarikhan beshtar hangomi bahsho oid ba maod vobasta ba masoili sarnavisht, jabru ikhtiyor mavridi bahs qaror giriftaast, mo onro donista dar okhiri in fasl ovardem.

Asli adl on ast, ki parvardigor odil ast, ba kase zulm ravo namedorad. Asli adl dar islom ham jihati ilohiyoti (khudoshinosi) dorad, chunki bayongari sifati Hudost va hm dastur, tavsiya va amri ijtimoiyu akhloqist. Dalel ba in on oyoti ziyodi Quron va hadishoi nabavist,ki az bandagon odil budan, nigah doshtani adlu adolatro dar hama umurro talab kardaand. YAne Hudo odil ast va az bandagon niz rioyati adlu adolatro taqozo dorad.

Ammo dar hamin mavrid ast, ki tarikhan vobasta ba tanosubi adl va q a z o v u q a d a r i ilokhi ikhtilofho va bahshoi ziyode ba miyon omada, hatto sababi judoi va paydoishi firqaho shudand. Mafhumi q a z o v u q a d a r yo sarnavisht dar Quron va hadisho khelo pechida ast. Oyathoe hastand, ki dalolat ba manii sad dar sad vobasta budani inson az sarnavishtqazovu qadari ilohiro mekunand. Masalan: “Mo tashou illo an tashoa Alloha” yane, namekhokhed shumo hej chizero magar in ki Hudo khohad.\ Q.Dahr:30 \ yo “Man yuzillu Allohu fa lo hodi lahu”-yane, har kiro Hudo gumrohu zalal karda pas rohnamoe baroi u naboshad. \ Q.7:186 \ yo ki mefarmoyad:”Fa lam taktuluhum va lokinna Allohu katalahum “. –yane pas nakushted shumo ononro balki Hudo kusht. \ Q.8:17 \ va khamchunin farmuda:

“Mo asoba min musibatin illo bi iznil-Lohi”- yane,musibate vorid nameshavad az masoib magar ba farmoni Hudo.\ Q.64:11 \ Va bar aksi oyathoi bolo, oyathoe hastand, ki dalolat ba ikhtiyor va ozodii insonro dorand. Masalan:” Mo asobaka min hasanatin fa minal -Lohi va mo asobaka min sayiatin fa min nafsika”.- yane, on chi az khubi ba tu vorid meshavad, on az Hudost va on chi badi ast, on az khudi tu ast. \ .1.4:^9 \ YO khud: “Inna Alloha lo yugayir mo bi-qavmin hatto yugayiru mo bi-anfusihim” – Hudovand vazi hej mardumero avaz namekunad magar on ki khudi onho vazi nafsonii khudro tagyir dihand.\ Q.Rad:11\ In ikhtilof sabab gardid , ki dar atrofi in mavzu bahsu mujodilahoi ziyode rukh dihand. YAke az chunin ziddiyatho metavonad on boshad, ki Parvardigor agar muayyankunandai taqdir, kholiqi amol va inson foqidi iroda boshad, pas baroi gunohi beiroda sodir kardaash Parvardigor odamonro naboyad mujozot kunad. In ast ki hakim Umari Hayyom farmuda:

Holiq tuivu maro chunin sokhtai,

Qastam ba mayu tarona dilbokhtae.

CHun ruzi azal maro chunin sokhtai, Pas bahri chi dar duzakham andokhtai?

YO khud:

YO Rab, tu gilam sirishtai, man chi kunam? Pashmu qasabam Tu rishtai, man chi kunam? Qar neku bade, ki oyad az man ba vujud,

Tu bar sari man navishtai, man chi kunam?

YO in ki meguyad:

Man may khuramu har ki chu man ahl buvad.

May khurdani man ba nazdi u sahl buvad. May khurdani man Haq zi azal medonist, Gar may nakhuram ilmi Hudo jakhl buvad.

Va nihoyat faryod mezanad

Bar man qalami qazo chu be man ronand, Pas neku badash charo zi man medonand ? Di be manu imruz chu di be manu tu, Fardo ba chy hujjatam ba dovar khonand ?

In hama bayongari on ikhtilofoti aqidavist, ki dar bayni mazohib va firqahoi islomy badan ba vujud omadand. Dar in zamina nakhut du maktabi falsafiyu ilohiyotii islom ba vujud omadand, ki bo nomi j a b a r i ya va q a d a r i ya marufand. Payravoni aqidai jabariya amali insonro sad dar sad vobasta az irodai ilohy medonand va baraks payravoni qadariya bovary dorand, ki inson dar raftori khud mukhtor va sohibiroda ast. Aqidai jabariyaro badan payravoni maktabi falsafii a sh a r y va nazari qadariyaro maktabi m u t a z i l a idoma dodand. Ashariya meguftand irodai bashar isme ast biduni musammo, iroda dar haqiqat az Alloh ast va har chy u khost khohad shud. Har chy u khost bo makhluq mekunad, monandi naqqosh yo kuzagar mesozad va meshikanad.

Baraks mutazila meguftand bashar dar irodai khud ozod ast va bino bar in dar amol masul meboshad. Hulosa onhoe, ki tarafdori jabri mahz budand jabariya va onhoe, ki tarafdori ozodii irodai bashar budand qadariya va mutazila nom giriftaand.

YAke az muhimtarin talimoti aslii islom ehson ast, harchand on ba usuli din bevosita taalluq nadorad. Ehson- nekukory majmui tavsiyaho va talimoti marbut ba usuli akhloqy va odobu muqarraroti tarzi zindagii islomy meboshad. On to hadde dar chorchubi “Amr bil-maruf va nahiy min munkar” ifoda shuda ast. YAne amru hidoyat ba khulqu atvori pisandida va man va jilvagiry az munkarot va muharramot az felu afoli bad meboshad.

CHun din padidai jamiyatist va dar in yo on havzai tamaddun va farhang tashakkul meyobad tabiist, ki vay tamomi zakhirahoi manavy va arzishhoi akhloqii qobili qabuli on manotiq va jamiyathoro qabul va ba on arzishhoi navi dar zaminai niyozho va zaruriyatkhoi ijtimoiyu tarikhy ba vujud omadaro zam namuda, ba onkho huquqi shary medihad. Durust ast, ki dar barobari in baze arzishhoi akhloqy, muqarraroti ijtimoii guzashtagon va oinhoi peshina, ki ba talaboti ijtimoy-siyosy va mazhabii nav javobgu nabudand rad karda meshavand.

Islom chun digar dinho arzishho, meyorhovu muqarraroti akhloqii umumiinsony, ki duzdy, durugguy, odamkushy, bakhily, zino va fasodu masty, kibr, gurur va gayraro mazammat va nahy mekunand va dar barobari on targibu sitoishi rosty, pokizagii akhloq, ehson ba volidayn va aqrabo, sharm va hayo, muruvvat ba yatimon, zerdaston va digar meyorhoi ba hamin monandro faro girifta ast. Nagufta namonad, ki hamchunin islom baze sunnathoi davrai qabilavy-avlodiro, ki zaminai ijtimoii khudro az dast doda, nolozim shuda budand, masalan: qasosi khuny, kushtani farzandoni dukhtar tavallud shuda, izdivoji kheshovandoni nazdik va gayraro man yo sabuk mekunad.

Muhimtarin muqarrarot (normaho)-i akhloqii islom, ki dar Quron amali soleh nomida shudaast dar surai “Al- Isro”, oyathoi 23 to 29 bayon shudast. Ba gayr az in asoshoi talimoti akhloqii islom dar sarosari Quron ba in yo on munosibat va dar hadishoi Payombari islom Muhammad(s) niz zikr shudaand.

Dar boramon

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