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CHahonbinii usturavi-dinii YUnoniyon

Tasavvuroti yunoniyon dar «Teogoniya» va («Paydoishi khudoyon»)-i Gesiod va «Iliada» va «Odisseya»-iHomer inikos yoftaan.

Qabl az shinosoi bo maqomi khudoyon dar anjumani khudoyoni Homer boroi durust fahmidani on, tasavvuroti diniyu asotirii yunoniyon dar mavridi paydoishi olam va khudoyonro donistan zarur ast. In shinosoi baroi fahmidani jarayoni tahavvuli aqoidi onho oid ba paydoishi olam umumiyat va khususiyathoi mintaqaviyu zamonii on imkoniyat medihad.

iliadaDar usturahoi yunoni, misli misri va bobili hodisahoi tabiat va kayhon va paydoishi sitoravu sayoraho ba dar shakli mif bo ramzu sibolhof ifoda shudaand. Muvofiqi akhbori asotiri yunoni dar avval tanho haraju maraji abadiyu benihoyat, ki manbai hayot bud, vujud doshtaast. Hama olam va hatto khudoyoni jovid niz az on ba vujud meoyand. Nakhust az on olihai Zamin-Geya, sipas muhiti abadii beokhiru betage bo nomi Tartar, hamchunin nerui buzurgi ishqi ehyogari hama – Erosro tavlid namud. Az haraju maraj inchunin zulmati abadi – Ereb va shabi tira – Nyuktu ba vujud meoyand, ki dar navbati khud in hardu Nuri abadi – Efir va Ruzi ravshani saodatmand – Gemer tavallud meshavad.

Sipas Zamin sakhovatmand, Osmoni benihoyati kabud – Uranro ba vujud meorad. Uran dar navbati khud Zaminro ba zani megirad va az in izdivoj shash pisar va shash dukhtari nerumandu azimjussa (titan) tavallud meshavand. Az in farzandoni Uran va Geya jismhoi osmoni: Hurshed, Moh, sitorahoi subhdam va gayra tavallud shudaand.

Uran farzandoni khudro dust namedosht onhoro dar qari zulmati Zamin nigoh medosht, ba rushnoi baromadan namemond. Zamin az in dar azob bud. Farzandonashro tablig ba qiyom alayhi padar mekard, vale onho az u metarsidand, tanho pisari az hama khurdi Kroni makkor padari khudro bo nayrang az takht farovarda, joi uro girift.

Zevs – khudoi buzurg, khudoi khudoyoni anjumani khudoyoni yunoni. Kron az tarsi on ki pisaronash hokimiyatro chunon ki khudi u az padarash Uran girifta bud, khohand girift, ba zanash Geya (dukhtari Uran) farmud, ki farzandoni tavalludshudaro ba u biovarad va onhoro berahmona furu meburd. Hamin tavr, u panj farzandash: Gestiya, Demetr, Geru, Aida (Gedas) va Poseydonro furu burd.

Geya farzandi okhirinash Zevsro az u dar jazirai Krit dar gore pinhon kard va ba joi u sangero pechonida ba Kron medihad va u nafahmida furu mebarad.

CHunin ast qissai tavalludi Zevs, ki badan u dar muboriza bo farzandoni azimjussa va guli Zamin (titanho) galaba ba dast meorad. Zevs khudoi Osmon, farmondehi radu barq dar Kuhi Olimp dar takhti tilloi saltanat menishinad dar atrofi u khudoyoni digar: Gera khohar va zani seyumi u( pas az Metida va Femida) – olihai homii zoymon va nikoh – pahluyash nishasta. Dukhtarash Geba niz onjo huzur dorad. Hulosa dar martabahoi mabadi anjumani khudoyoni YUnoni boston pas az khonavodai Zevs du barodarash:

  • Poseydon – khudoi bahrho va uqyonus;
  • Aid – khudoi saltanati ruhi murdagon dar zeri zamin qaror dorand;
  • Apollon- khudoi oftob, homii manzilgohho, shahrho va ramaho;
  • Artemida – dukhtari Zevs, khudoi moh, hosilkhezi, homii tavalludi kudakon va tabobat;
  • Afina -khudoi homii shahrho qaror dorand;
  • Gesef – pisari Zevs – khudoi otash va ohangari; Dionis – khudoi maykashi;
  • Germes – khudoi homii musofiron, qaror dorand. 8- Ares – khudoi jang;
  • Afrodita – khudoi muhabbatu ishq;
  • Demetri – khudoi hosilkhezi va khudoyoni digare dar in anjuman dokhiland.

Zindagi va raftoru kirdor, suratu andomi khudoyoni yunoni hama shabehi odamand, onho na tanho khislathoi khubi inson, balki khislathoi badu razilai onhoro niz dorand.

Dar asotiri yunoni maqomi qahramonkhudoyon Prometey, Gerakl va digaron niz khelo baland ast. Alalkhusus, naqshi Prometey raboyandai otash az borgohi khudoyon baroi odamon, ovardai nuru rushnoi va donish ba inson dar tamadduni yunoni va jahoni buzurg ast.

Dar misoli munosibati Zevs bo Prometey metavon did, kibaraksi dini nasroni va islom bayni khudoyon va inson-miyoni Osmon va Zamin (jahoni khudoyon va jahoni insonho) raqobatu tazzod va hatto nave az hasad va kinavu adovat hukmron ast. Dar okhir boyad guft, ki faylasufoni yunoni, az jumla, Fales, Ksenofan, Aflotun, Arastu va digaron hanuz dar zamoni khud tasavvuroti dini- mifologii rasmii yunoniyonro sakht zeri toziyonai tanqid girifta, dar khudoshinosi aqidai nazdik ba yaktoparastiro bayon kardaand.

Dar boramon

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