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CHarayoni tasavvuf (Sufiya)

Tasavvuf tarikhi kukhan dorad. Ibtidoi paydoishi on ba asrkhoi VII – IX mansub meboshad. In charayon dar ibtido khamchun charayoni ziddifeodaly bud. Az in chikhat ba kharakat ommai benavoyon va ravshanfikron shomil shudand. Dar yak vakt kharakat kharakteri ziddi mustamlikavy niz dosht. Az in chikhat khilofati Arab va rukhoniyoni islom az on khavf burda, kushish menamudand peshi rokhi onro girand. Ba in maqsad rokhbaroni faoli kharakat Aboyazidi Bastomy, Mansuri Halloj, SHikhobiddini Sukhravardy, Ibrokhim Mashrabi Namangony va digaron ba khatl rasonda shudand. Hilofat bo jazodikhy peshi rokhi kharakatro girifta natavonista, maqsad guzosht kharakatro az darun boz dorad. Dar in bobat faylasuf Mukhammad Gazoly khizmati kalon dorad. u dar asarash «Kiyomi saodat» javkhari nazariyavii tasavvufro asosnok namuda, onro bo islom omekhta manidod namud.
Tasavvuf dar Osiyoi Miyona dar asri H1 rasmy gasht, ki asosguzori on YUsufi Hamadony meboshad. Muvofiki talimoti u shakhse, ki tasavvufro meparastad, boyad khalolkor, pokiza boshad.
Sufiyoni mashkhuri Osiyoi Miyona shoir Sanoy, Akhmadi YAsovy, Hoja Abulkholiki Gijduaony budand. CHikhatkhoi manfii jarayon dar on bud, ki rokhi taravdiyotiro boz medosht. Minbad bo peshravy kharakat raviyai khudro tagiir dod.
Dar asri H11 bo kharakati tasavvuf jarayonkhoi «Hufiya» va «CHakhriya» payvastand.
Asosguzoroni jakhriya Hoji Abdukholiki Gijduvony va Hoji Bakhovaddini Nakshbandy budand. Tarafdoroni «Huviya» odamonro ba gushanishiny va dunyobezory davat mennamudand. «CHakhriya» yo Nashandiya tarki dunyo kardan va gushanishiniro rad mekardand.
CHarayonkhoi tasavvuf dar asrkhoi minbada boz ba shokhakho taqsim shudand.
Umuman jarayoni tasavvuf ba du raviya – tarafdoroni aristokratiya va khalq. Tarafdoroni khalkh az khisobi tabaqakhoi poyonii akholii shakhru dekhot baromada budand, baroi ruzi nek muboriza meburdand. Gurukhi irtijoii tasavvuf mardumro ba zeri azobu shikanja girifta ba gushanishiny, dunyobezory davat menamudand. In jarayon dar dasti amaldoron va rukhoniyon khamchun aslikhai istismor khizmat mekard.
Masalan, buzurgtarin shaykhi tasavvufi nakshbandiya Hoja Akhrori Valy bud. u sokhibi sarvati ziyod gashta bud. Garchande, ki khudro tarafdori khalq mekhisobid, dar asl ommaro berakhmona gorat menamud. Ilova az in Hoja Akhror ba korkhoi dokhili davlati Temuriyon dakholat mekard. Bo amri u siyosatmador va olimi namoyon Mirzo Ulugbek dar soli 1449 dar sini 55 – solagy ba qatl rasonda shud. SHoir Hiloly soli 1529 bo khidoyati payravoni tasavvuf kushta shud.
Az asri H1 sar karda tasavvuf ba adabiyot rokh yoft. In bud, ki nammoyandagoni barchastai adabiyot: Sanoy, Attor, CHaloliddini Rumy, Nizomii Ganchi, Husravi Dekhlavy, Abdurakhmoni CHomy ba tasavvuf ru ovarda budand.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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