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DINI BAHOIYA

Bahoiya yake az junbishhoi mazhabii nimai duyumi asri XIX dar Eron ast, ki badan khudro dini nav elon namud. Dar mavridi chigunagii paydoishi in junbish mo dar qismati islomshinosi sukhan kardem. In din niz dar zaminai farhangi eroni ba vujud omada, davati dinii jahoni gardid. Asosguzori in din Mirzo Husayn Ali- Bahoulloh (1817-1892) dar ibtido yake az payravonu muridoni Mirzo Ali Muhammadi SHerozi (1820-1850) mulaqqab ba Bob bud.

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Mirzo Ali Muhammad dar 25 solagi khudro imomi Mahdi qalamdod namud. Fikri mahdaviyat az zamone dar zehni u paydo shud, ki dar sinni 17 solagi dar Bushahr, yake az shahrkhoi janubi Eron, bo yake az payravoni mazhabi shaykhi muloqot kard va sipas ba shahri mazhabii Karbalo rafta, ba jumlai shogirdoni Kozimi Rashti, yake az peshvoyoni shaykhiya payvast. Kozimi Rashti dar darshoyash doiman ba nazdikii zuhuri Mahdi[1] takid mekard. Goho hangomi vasfi Mahdi izhor medosht, ki Mahdi ham aknun dar miyoni most. In bud, ki bad az margi Rashti Mirzo Ali Muhammad khudro noib va muqaddimae baroi zuhuri Mahdi elom kard va ba «Bob» (arb. darvoza) maruf gasht va mazhabi vay ba nomi «bobi» shinokhta shud. U badtar az in ham poro farokhtar guzosht va khudro shakhsan Mahdi elon kard va hamchunin iddao kard, ki Hudo dar vay hall shuda va vay rohest baroi zuhuri Muso va Eso. Bob kitobe navisht bo nomi «Bayon» va onro ba joi Quron va shariati islom_muarrify kard va izhor dosht, ki bad az kitobi u inho bekor (mansukh) shudaand. Uro bo fatvo va fishori ruhoniyati shia soli 1892 bad az muddate zindoni va ba dor ovekhtand. Pas az kushta shudani Bob du nafar az shogirdoni uro bo nomi Subhi Azal va Mirzo Qusayn Aly (Bahoullo) az Eron tabid kardand. Subhi Azal Qibris (Kipr) va Mirzo Husayn Ali shahri Aka dar Falastinro mahalli zisti khud ikhtiyor kardand. Subhi Azal hamon tariqai Bobro idoma dod va payravoni vay bobiya nom giriftand. ,

Ammo Mirzo Husayn Aly po farokhtar nihod va maqomi Mirzo Ali (Bob)-ro ba khud nisbat dod va zuhuri Mirzo Aliro muqaddimae baroi zuhuri khud iddao kard. U elom dosht , ki Hudo dar u hall shudaast. Bahoulloh kitobe nigosht bo nomi «Kitobi Aqdas» va onro vahyi ilohi elon kard. Hamchunin izhor dosht, ki on chi u ba sui on davat mekunad, islom nest, balki dini navest, gayr az islom. In bar khilofi davati Bob bud, chuki Mirzo Ali mujaddid bud, u meguft, ki omadaast islomro tajdid va isloh namoyad.

SHakhsiyati digare, ki bahoiyon ba u etiqod dorand, pisari Bahoulloh Abbos Effendi mulaqqab ba AbdulBaho meboshad.

Asosi talimoti bahoiyaro tarkibe az talimoti islom, nasroniya va baze aqoidi zardushtiya tashkil mekunad. Bahoulloh dar ilohiyot chun islom tavhidist, vale khudro bahotajallii Hudo, yane zuhuri Hudoro, monandi Esoi Maseh dar shakhsi khudash elom medorad. Iz in ru bahoiyon ba unvoni Hudo uro boyad parastand. « Bahoi, -menavisad yake az muhaqiqoni in din Esslemont J.E.,- na ba tabiati insonii Bahoulloh, balki ba shuhrati Hudovand, ki ba vositai in shakhs zuhur namuda, tazim mekunad. Vay ba sifati rasuloni Hudo hama Rasuloni guzashta: Krishna, Zardusht,Muso, Buddo, Eso, Muhammad, Bobro etirofu ehtirom mekunad, vale u BahoUlloro, hamchun Rasuli Paygomi Ilohi baroi erai Nav, on ki mo zindagi dorem, hamchun Muallimi Buzurgi Jahoni, ki baroi idoma va anjom dodani kori guzashtagoni Hud omadaast etirof mekunand.»[2] Az in ru bahoiyon ba nubuvvat va paygambari etiqod dorand va zarurati uro chun vosita bayni mumin va Hudo etirof mekunand. Zamoni risolati BahoUllohro az zamoni zuhurash to hazor sol bad meshumorand va pas az on zamoni zuhuri Bahoi digar ast.

Mafhumi okhirat va rastokhez va ba hamin vobasta zuhur va bozgashti Esoi Maseh niz nazdi BahoUlloh manii digar dorad. Bahoiyon abadiyati ruhro etirof namuda, ehyo va rastokhez dar jannatro, ba manii ehyoi ruhoni, hamzamon bo qabuli risolati paygambari har davre va yo hamchun dokhil shudan ba «jannati ishqi ilohi» tabir mekunand va duzakhro boqi mondan dar «otashu», «duzakh»i kufru beimoni medonad. Ba iborai digar, jannat hamchun daryofti «nazdiki», «qurbat» bo Hudovand va duzakhhamchun dur shudan az U fahmida meshavad. « Tibqi talimoti bahoiya «qiyomat» hej umumiyate bo zinda shudani tani tabii dagal nadorad. CHun tan yo jism, ki murd, digar hej bozgashtu ba ham payvastane, ba juz fasod shudanu ba ajzo mutaloshi shudan, nadorad. Qiyomatin tavalludi inson dar hayoti ruhoni ba sharofati nemati Ruhul Quddus ast, ki tavassuti BahoUlloh irsol gashta ast.» [3]

Dini bahoiya vahdati insoniyat va vahdati asli goyavii dinhoro etirof va barobarii mardu zan dar hama umurro targab menamoyad. Dar masalai tanosubi ilmu din meguyand, din boyad mutobiqi aql va ilm boshad. Onho hamohangsozii ilm va dinro targib mekunand.

Dini bahoiya dar barobari etiqod ba masoili ijtimoi va ibodati niz tavajjuhi khose medihad. Bahoiya zuhdu gushanishiniro mazammat, khuddori az istemoli afyun va mashruboti alkhuli, talimoti hamagonii hatmi, khizmatguzori ba insoniyatro targib namuda, elom doshta, ki bahoiyon shahrvandoni jahonand. YAne bahoi mahdudiyathoi milli, vatani, mazhabiyu dini va aqidaviro asli ikhtilofu ziddiyatho va nizohoi jamiyat meshumorad va Vatani khudro tamomi jahon elon karda. Bahoiya baroi payravoni khud ijroi kasbii marosimhoi mazhabi, bozihoi qimori, zino, duzdi, kushtor, lavoti, khushunat nisbat ba hayvonot, qabohatguiyu badguyi, iqrori gunohon, tuhmat, suzondani mayit, otashzadan, gadoi, rahboniyat, gulomfurushi va dastbusiro man kardaast. Muhimtarin usuli bahoiya itoat ba hukkom va mani ishtirok ba umuri siyosi meboshad. Dar bahoiya dastgohi ruhoniyat barham doda shudaast, az in ru vazifai har dindor intishori oyini bahoiya meboshad. Hondani namoz dar avvali subh va begoh baroi har bahoi farz ast on ba gayr az namozi janoza infirodi ast. Namoz, tibqi talimoti bahoiya, «zaboni ishq» ast- ishqu muhabbati banda ba Hudovand. Hamchunin doshtani ruza az 2 Mart to 21 Mart -19 ruz (taqvimi bahoiya az 19 mohi 19 ruzi iborat ast) baroi onho farz shudaast. Idi Navruzro idi ruza niz meguyand.

Bahoiya dar okhiri nimai avvali asri XIX dar Eron, ba vujud omada, imruz in din ziyoda az 120 000 jamiyat dar 177 kishvari sohibistiqlol va dar 48 nohiyahoi vobasta dorad. Adabiyoti bahoi ba ziyoda az 800 zabon tarjuma shudaast. Qibla va «Kaba»-i bahoiyon « Honai jahonii adl»( dar sh. Hayfa, Isroil) meboshad.

Dar osiyoi Markazi avvalini payravoni bahoiya okhiri asri XIX dar Ishqobod paydo shudand va dar hamon jo soli 1902 avvalin Ibodatgohi bahoiyon sokhta shud, ki to soli 1938 amal mekard, badan on ba muzey va soli 1963, dar qatori bisyore az digar ibodatgohho nest karda shud. Holo dar hamai jumhurihoi Osiyoi Markazi jamiyathoi bahoiya rasman faoliyat mekunand. Dar Tojikiston niz ziyoda az 2000 payravoni in din faoliyat dorand va jamiyathoi bahoiyon dar hama shahru nohiyahoi buzurgi jumhuri rasman faoliyat dorand.

[1]   Mahdi – imomi dvozdahumi ahli tashayu(Imomi Muntazir- Mahdii Sohibuzzamon)- kase, ki Hudovand uro ba sui Haqq hidoyat namuda. Mahdaviyat dar islom ham monandi masehiyat(messi) dar dini nasroni ast va dar tarikhi islom iddae davii mahdaviyat kardaand.

[2] Dj. E. Esslemont. Bakha-ulla i novaya era.-Almati: Nasionalnoe Dukhovnoe Sobranie Bakhai Kazakhstana, 1996.- S.73-74.

[3] Dj.E.Esslemont Bakha-ulla.-S.220.

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