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DINI JAYNIYA (JAYNIZM)

Jayniya (Jainism) az jonibi namoyandagoni ravshanfikri tabaqai ashrofu ayon, hamchun junbishi mukholif ba talimoti barahmaniya va sokhtori kastavii asri U1 t. m dar Hinduston ba miyon omad. Asosguzori jaynizm shohzoda Mahavira Nataputta Varduamana bud, ki solhoi 599-527 t.m. zindagi kardaast.

jainizm

Mahavira dar siyu yak solagiash darborro tark namuda, ba darveshoni zohid mepayvandad. Pas az 12 soli azobu shikanjaho va zuhdu taqvo dar rohi dastyobi ba najot va kamoli nafs, dar sinni 43 solagi ba darajai kamol, ba martabai nirvona- «maksha» merasad. Pas az in u laqabi Jina (Firuz va Foteh)-ro megirad va shuru ba tabligi aqoidi mazhabii khesh menamoyad. Mahavira Jina dar 72 solagi in jahonro padrud meguyad va tibqi etiqodu bovarii payravonash u dar nirvona forig az ranji va najot yoftaast.

Aslan talimot va falsafa va akhloqi jayniya rui poyai justujui rohi najot az ranji «karma» va rasidan ba sarmanzili saodat va visol, yane «maksho» asos yoftaast. Najoti ruh «maksho» biduni tahammuli azobu mashaqqat va riyoziathoi sakht imkonnopazir ast; soniyan, poksozii nafs faqat dar payravi az qoidai ahimso (yane naozurdani hej jondore) muyassar megardad.

Baroi noil shudan ba najoti nafs se asli zerinro solik boyad pesha kunad: 1- bartaraf kardani jahlu nodoni va marifat ba nafs, 2- tahsili imon pas az taammul va didori Haq, 3-kheshtandori. In se aslro «triratata -se gavhar» guyand. Guzashta az in har payravi mazhabi jayn dah ahdi zerinro boyad rioya kunad: In panj taahhud yo faroiz baroi kasoni khosa az mazhabi jayniya meboshad, ki na har kas qodiraast, hamai onro rioya kunand, az in ru, baroi ommai mardum tabaqoti avom duvozdah paymoni sabuktar vaz kardaand:

hej vaqt donistavu qasdan jondorero bejon nakunad

hej vaqt durug naguyand;

hej vaqt duzdi va moli digaronro sohibi nakunand;

az shahvatparasti biparhezand, zanu shavhar boyad bo ham vafodor va az kirdor va guftori pindori nopok duri juyand;

az hirsu afzuntalabi dar molu joh biparhezand, bo kam qanoat kunand; az har amale, ki sababi fitna va gunoh shavad, barhazar boshand;

hamesha hushyor boshand, ki ba domi khatovu amoli sharr naaftand, har ruz dar vaqti muayyane ba muroqiba va tafakkur dar botini khud mashgul shavand.

  • ba niyozmandon, makhsusan ba zohidon va tarki dunyokardagon sadaqavu bakhshishho az rui sidq kunand,
  • baze ruzho dar zindagoni tarki dunyo kunand va misli rohibon va darveshon ruz guzaronand.

Hamchunin baroi muminoni in mazhab muvofiqi talaboti duvozdahgonai nomburda qimorbozi, gusht khurdan, sharob nushidan, zino va shikor, duzdi va digar navhoi fisqu fujur mamnu va harom ast. Payravoni in mazhab, hej vaqt zaminro shudgoru pobel namekunand, az shugli qassobi, shikorchi, pazandagi va kasbu hirfahoe, ki bo kushtani jondorho vobasta boshad, mashgul nameshavand.

Dar dini jayniya na etiqod ba khudo ast va na paygambar, na bihisht va na duzakh. Tibqi in falsafa sarnavishti har shakhs natijai amali ust, az in ru, hej guna bakhtu iqbol va qismate vujud nadorad. Badtarin gunoh dar dini jayniya kushtan va ozor rasonidan (himsa) ast va behtarin fazilat beozori (ahimsa) meboshad. Payravoni jayniya ba asli «naozurdan» yo «beozori» khelo diqqat medihand.

Tibqi talimoti in din jahon az shash juz iborat ast:

1 – Jiva, yane majmui zarroti jondor, ki dar koinot parokandaand. In zarrot ofarida nashudaand, halok namegardand. Onho doroi hayoti sarmadi va energiyai abadi, zotan jondor va shabehi hamdigarand.

2- Ajiva- kholigi, nesti ast, ki ba on zarrot nufuz namuda, dar dokhili onho nohamohangi ejod mekunad. 3– Dharm, ba harakatu junbish ovardani mavjudot;

  • Adharma, omili sukut va osoish;
  • Kalla, zamone, ki paydoishu tartibotro imkonpazir mesozad;
  • Pudgala, modda, ki murakkab az zarrot buda doroi rangu buyu mazza ast. Olam va zindagi natijai ba ham omekhtani jivo va ajiva meboshad.

Jayniya, misli buddoiya, zindagiro azobi doimi medonad, ki bo marg khotima nameyobad, balki insoniyat va har makhluqi digar ba mudovim tavallud shudanu murdan mahkum ast. Inson metavonad tanho ba vositai mujohidat va tahzibu tarbiyai nafs az martabai past ba martabai olii ilohi birasad va misli khudoyon ba zindagii beranj musharraf gardad.

Talimoti jayniyai dar kitobe bo nomi Agamas, ki ba zaboni sanskrit ast, girdovari shudaast.

Dar dinu falsafai jayniya ba bistu chahor insonhoi najotdihandai bashar, ki ba zaboni khud Tirthankaras menomand, bovari dorand. Naqshi jaynizm dar rushdu farhang, az jumla, memorii Hinduston khele buzurg ast. Mabadhoi ziyode ba sharafi Mahovira va on duvozdah munjiyon, najotdihandagoni insoniyat (Tirthankaras) sokhta shudaand. Baze payravoni firqahoi jayniya dar payravi az sunnati Mahovira saropo uryonu barahna zindagi mekunad va baroi inson libose ba juz havo qabul nadorand. Payravoni mazhabi jayn asosan dar nohiyai Bikharai Hinduston joygirand, ki onho ziyoda az 2 million yo 0,5% aholii Hindustonro tashkil mekunad.

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