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DINI DAO (Daotsizm)

Daosizm nakhust hamchun yak maktab yo sistemai falsafi va badan hamchun yake az din va mazhabhoi chini ba arsai tarikhi om meguzorad. Asosguzori on hakim-faylasufi marufi Hitoi qadim Lao-Tszi yo Lao-Tan meboshad, ki tibqi rivoyatho dar iyoloti CHu soli 604 t.m. ba jahon omada. U az khud kitobe bo nomi «Dao-de-tszi> boqi meguzorad, ki on to ba mo rasidaast.

daoDaosizm tarikhan dar se shakl zohir meshavad: a) dar shakli falsafy, ki shomili talimoti irfonii qaviyu nerumandest; b) sehru jodugary yo shakli khurofotivu mazhabii on; v) dinirasmy-hamchun mazhabirasmii khoqonhoi CHin.

Mafhumi markazii daosizm Dao ast. Dao-mohiyat, haqiqat yo on asli nihoy ast, ki dar hamai ashyo nufuz dorad. Dao hamon quvva va neruest, ki sohibidrok buda, koinot va tamomi olamro bo ashyoi on ba nazmu tartibi khosi onho ofaridaast.

Dao ham ba manii rohu tariqat ast va ham solik-rohravi in roh. Az in ru, Dao inchunin shomili masoili zindagy, davlaty va suluku raftor va odobu akhloqi insonist. Hudi Lao-Tszi Daoro ba istilohoti pechidavu ramzii irfony bayon kardaast. Az jumla u meguyad: «Dao monandi yak zarfi kholy ast, ki bo on ki kholist, metavon az on ob darovard. Dao monandi zarfest, ki muhtavoyash tamomnashudanist va umqash benihoyat ast. Dar Dao har guna durakhshandagy, durakhshandagii khudro az dast medihadva harchi sakht ast, narm meshavad».[1]

Agar ba matni bolo durust tavajjuhu diqqat kunem in jo yak asli umumi va ravishi yagonai tahavvuli dinhoro mebinem.

Talimoti falsafii Lao-Tszi az bisyor jihat monand ba talimoti barahmaniya meboshad va Dao niz dar in talimot ham monandi khudoi Brahmo Joni Jahon ast. Dar falsafai daosizm Dao ham illat ast va ham malul (ham sabab va ham natija) . Hama ashyo az Dao ba vujud omadaand va ba Dao boz megardand. Hulosa, dar markazi talimoti falsafii daosizm talimot dar borai Daoi Buzurg, qonuni umumy va kullii hasty qaror dorad.

Dao dar hama jo, hamesha va doimo huqumat mekunad. Vayro kase naofaridaast, vale hama chiz az vay mansha va sarchashma megirad.

Vay didanashavanda, shunidanashavanda, ba hej yak azoi his dastnoras, doimy, beokhir, benomu nishon ast, vale ba hama ibtido, nomu shaklu surat mebakhshad. In jo niz shabohati ziyod bayni khudoshinosii islomy va alalkhusus tasavvuf va dao dida meshavad.

Hadafi yak insoni voqey tibqi in talimot dar omekhtan, yak shudan bo Dao meboshad, vale in hadafe nest, ki ba dunbolash biravem va baroi rasidan ba on ranj va zahmat kashem, balki boyad harchi az tabiat ba dast meovarem ba surati pisandida az on istifoda kunem va ba kasbu tahsili chizhoi ziyodaty va gayrilozimi kushish nakunem, monandi Dao tihy boshem, to dar haqiqat pur boshem.[2]

Talimoti Lao-Tszi chunon, ki guftem dar risolai «Dao-detzin» (asr. 1U – 111 t.m.) bayon shudaast va in chand hikmate az on :

«Behtarini hukumatho on hukumatest, ki hukumat nakunand va behtarini farmondor on farmondorest, ki bar shahvati khud farmon bironad.

Agar kolohoi garonqimmat az arzish biaftand, digar na duzd paydo meshavad va na duzdy ba vuqu mepayvandad.

Kase ki digaronro bishnosad, oqil ast, vale oqiltar az u on kasest, ki khudro bishnosad.

Zohidi voqey hargiz tazohur ba zuhd namekunad.

Oqil hargiz faryod barnameovarad, ki man oqilam.»[3]

DAOSIZM HAMCHUN DIN

dar hududi chahor asr (az 206 t.m.221 m.) tashakkul meyobad. Ammo tashakkuli daosizm hamchun din asosan dar davrai yake az imperatoroni sulolai duyumi Hon ba nomi Hvan (Niap) soli 165 m. surat giriftaast.

Marhilai nav dar masiri ba din tabdil dodani daosizm zamoni hokimiyati khoqoni CHin CHen-Tsung(Sep-Tzipd) az sulolai shohoni Sung meboshad. Uro mudabbiru poyaguzori daosizm hamchun dini ilohy dar hududi soli 10051008m. menomand.

Dastgirii khoqoni chini ba daosizm imkoniyat dod, ki dar barobari fishori dini hokimi konfutsi istodagari kunad. Vale dar rafti in muqovimat daosizm sakht tagyiri mohiyat kard. Az tariqi kanor guzashtani talimoti falsafii mobadi tabii (metafiziki) dar mavzui Dao va dast kashidan az gushanishinivu zuhd va inchunin goyai u-vay (faoliyat nakardan) mubaligini daosizm tavonistand faoliyati khudro dar bayni mardum gustarish va bo rohi omekhtan va tarkib dodani goyahoi falsafii Lao-tsizi bo etiqodotu bovariho va hatto khurofoti ommai kishovarz onhoro ba in din jalb namoyand.

YAke az omilhoi ba din tabdil yoftani daosizm talimoti on dar borai darozumri(az 800 to 1200 sol)va namirandagi bud. Dar in zamina muballigoni Daosizm usturae dar borai olihai jovidiyat Sivanmu, ki dar bogash har 3000 sol yak bor shaftolui jovidiyat gul mekunad va usturai nakhustodam– Pan-Kurap-Ki)- ro ejod kardaand, ki dar bisyor mavrid shabehi usturai Kayumars dar dini zardushtiya va Brahma dar dini hinduiya meboshad. Gayr az in dar in din ba hasht nafar ravoni jovid, ki az odamiyon budand va dar asari riyozat va zuhd ba maqomi abadi rasidaand, bovari dorand.[4]

Usturai nakhustinson PanKu az nazari muqoisa bo talimoti adyoni digar jolib ast. In qissa yo ustura dar zaminai yak hikmate , ki dar risolai «DaoDetzen» (p,42) omada, bunyod shudaast. Va on hikmat chunin sado medihad: «Dao yakro tavallud mekunad, yak duro tavallud mekunad va du sero tavallud kard, se hamaro». Az baski manii amiqi falsafii in hikmat ba mardumi oddi dastnoras bud, ulamoi daosizm onro dar shakli usturai Pan-Ku tafsir kardaand, ki chunin ast: Dar avval haraju maraji nakhustin bud, az in haraju maraj PanKu khud az khud tavallud meshavad (yane Dao yakro tavallud mekunad). Hajdah hazor sol meguzarad va kayhon ba paydoish shuru mekunad, hamaguna unsuri sabuk va tozavu sof- yan-tsy ba bolo meravad va Osmon ba vujud meoyad va baraks, hamaguna unsuri vazninu kasif ba poyon menishinad va zaminro ba vujud meorand (yak duro tavlid mekunad). PanKu bayni Zamin va Osmon memonad va khele tez rushd mekunad (az du se tavlid meyobad).

Hangome, ki Pan-Ku buzurg shud, az chashmoni u Oftob va Moh paydo shudaand, az tanash khok, ustukhonhoyash kuhho, muyhoyash alafu rustani, nafasash bodho, az rishash sitoraho ba osmon padid omadand va az parazithoi tanash insonho ba vujud omadand– (se hamaro tavallud kard).[5] CHunin ast kosmogoniyai daosizm, ki ba ravshani nazdikii on bo kosmogoniyai hinduiya va zardushtiya dar on dida meshavad.

ANCHUMANI HUDOYONI DAOTSIZM.

CHunon ki guftem, daotsizm etiqodi yagona nabuda, dar khud marosimhovu khurofot, etiqodho, hama guna khudoyon va arvohi ajdodon, qahramonon va jovidonro jazb kardaast. Dar in din khudoyoni ziyode hastand, az jumla asosguzori sulolai chiniyon imperatori CHini boston Huand, olihai Garb Sivanmu, nakhustinson PanKu, khudoyoni Taychu (Ibtidoi Buzurg) yo khud Taytzi (Nihoyati Azim) . Ba gayr az in sarlashkaron, qahramonon, ustokoron va gayra parastida meshavand, ba iftikhori onho mabadhoi ziyode bunyod shudaast. Arvohhoi muqaddas ba aqidai onho dar har rudkhona, sahro va kuh maskani ruhivu ravoni, joy dorad. Har sinf va har kasbu hirfa khudoi muqaddasi khudro dorad, ki az onho himoyat mekunand. Hamchunin khudoi tandurusti, khudoi nekbakhti, khudoi nabotot va hayvonoti gunogunro meparastand.

[1]  Mehrdodi Mehrin. Falsafai SHarq. S. 154.

[2]  Hamon jo

[3]   In jo niz bo nazariyai siyosii islomy hamsadost, chun dar islom niz hej banda haqqi hokimiyat bar insoni digar nadorad, balki vazifai hokim rahbary va nazorati ijroi qonunshariati ilohist.

[4]    Nig.:CHon B.Nos. Tarikhi jomei adyon. S.241.

[5]   Vasilev L.S. Istoriya religii Vostoka.S. 286.

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