Home / Ilm / DINI KONFUTSIY

DINI KONFUTSIY

In din nomi khudro az nomi asosguzori on mutafakkir va faylasufi chini Kunfutszi, ki shakli yunonii on Konfutsiyus ast, giriftaast.

Konfutsiy dar soli 551 t.m. tavallud shudaast. Dar khurdsolii u padarash vafot kard, ammo dar natijai fidokori va kushishi modar tarbiyavu talimi khub girifta bud. To ponzdahsolagi vay purra vaqti khudro ba talabi ilm va mutolia sarf karda, ammo dar 17 solagi madrasaro tark kard va mashguli kor shud. Dar avval ambordor bud, dar sinni bistsolagi shugli davlatiro ba vay supurdand. Dar hamin sol khonador meshavad. Dar 22 solagi maktabi khudro mekushoyad. Bad az vafoti modarash muddati 27 moh (se soli chini) az koru bori umumi kanoragiri kard va ba sugvorivu motam nishast.

konfuciy

In raftori u badan baroi mardumi CHin sarmashqu darsi muhabbat va ehtiromi farzand nisbat ba padaru modar meboshad. U dar panjohsolagi ba shugli vazorat merasad va dar korhoi siyosi va idori obru va muvafaqiyati ziyode kasb mekunad, vale bo dasisai raqibon noguzir tarki kori devon namuda, muddati sezdah sol dar atrofi kishvari CHin musofirat mekunad. U doimo dar fikri amali sokhtani nazariyai siyosivu akhloqii khudro budaast, vale dar hama jo hokimoni zamon uro harchand bo adabu ehtirom qabul kunand ham, az qabuli talimotu dasturoti siyosii u khuddori mekardaand. Tanho dar 67 solagi, soli 484 t. m. u ba vatanash bargardad. Baqiyai umri khudro u ba jamovarii mavodu usuli talimu tadrisi khud pardokht sarf kardaast. Az u du asar bo nomi «Panjkitob (U-tzin)» va va «CHorkitob» («Sushu») boqi mona_ast. U dar soli 479 t.m. az jahon chashm pushid va talimoti uro shogirdonash idoma dodand.

Dar sarchashmahoi diniyu falsafii konfutsiya «Panjkitob» na hama chi doroi mazmuni dini meboshad, balki qismati ziyodi onro akhbori tarikhiyu taqvimi, majmui osori badeiyu klassikii chini tashkil kardaast. Az in panj kitob chahortoi avval majmue az muntakhaboti hikmatho va guftahoi guzashtagon buda va tanho panjumin ejodi shakhsii ust.

«CHahorkitob» niz tafsirho va tavilhoi shakhsii Konfutsiy az osori guzashtagon va guftaho va navishtahoi khudi u, ki badan shogirdonash girdovari va tadvin kardaand.

Buzurgtarin khatar ba sari konfusiya dar davrai hukumati khoqoni buzurg kishvari CHinDuk CHing az sulolai CHing omada bud. In khoqon tamomi sarzamini vasei CHinro dar soli 221 t.m. ba zeri farmoni khud darovarda, khudro avvalin khoqon (SHi Huang.ti) laqab dod. U nizomi feodalii qadimaro barham doda, devori buzurgi CHinro bino va CHinro ba siyu shash iyolat taqsim karda bud. Duk CHing ulamo va payravoni dini Konfutsiro yake az mukholifoni sarsakhti khud pindoshta, soli 213 t.m. amr kard, ki tamomi kitobhovu osori qadimaro bisuzand. Onhoe, ki chunin kitobhoro pinhon mekardand, bo ohani tafson badanashonro dog mekard va muddati chahor sol ba korhoi majburi dar sokhtumoni devori Buzurgi CHin ba kor meguzosht. Muvofiqi akhbor hududi chahorsad tan az ulamo va fuzaloi olimartabaro, ki payravi az falsafai Konfutsiy mekardand, zinda dar gur madfun kard.[1] Hushbakhtona kitobhoi nomburda, ki dar khazinai khosi saltanati mahfuz monda budand, az nav dar davrai saltanati Hon paydo va intishor yoftand.

Konfutsiy hej guna iddaoe dar borai ilhomu vahy budani mazmunu mundarijai sarchashmahoi nomburda nakardaast va shakhsiyati Konfutsiy ba juz muallimi mazhabiyu akhloqi beshtar nest,

Talimoti Konfutsiy asosan masoili akhloqi, siyosi va tarbiyai insoni komilro faro megirad. Konfutsiy pesh az hama muallimi akhloqi ast. U dar akhloq va umuman dar hej masoile navovari nakardaast, balki rioyai daqiqi sunnati guzashtagonro talab kardaast. Usuli akhloqii u bar poyai qoidai umumi «Li» ustuvor ast. U istilohi «Li»ro ba manoi gunogun istemol kardaast. Az jumla, on ba manii pokivu tahorat, adabu insoniyat, tashrifot, rasmu odathoi ibodat istifoda shudaast.

«Li»- hamchun asosi nazmu tartibi korho va husni robitai insoni iborat az panj asl ast: robitai sulton bo raiyat, padar bo farzand, shavhar bo zan, barodari buzurg bo barodari khurd, duston bo duston ast.

Boyad kulliyai odobu tashrifoti ijtimoi, tibqi usuli «Li», mutobiqi rasmu odatho, sunnathoi guzashtagon anjom pazirad va dar on ehson nisbat ba volidayn- padaru modar va arvohi guzashtagon maqomi khos dorad. Konfutsiy talim medihad, ki «ba volidayn dar davrai hayotashon, mutobiqi sunnathovu rusumi niyogon khizmat kunand va vaqte ki in dunyoro pidrud meguyand, bar asosi ananavurusum guronand va muvofiqi nishondodhoi marosimiyu mazhabi qurboni orand[2]

«Li» hamonvaqt amalimegardand, kidar sarosarimamlakat etidol boshad;

Javhari talimoti akhloqii dini konfutsiya insondusti va odamiyat ast. Asosi javonmardiro u dar insondusti mebinad. Javonmard dar har holat hatto dar surati nokomi niz boyad insondustiro tark nakunad. Afkori ijtimoiyu siyosii konfutsiya justujuest baroi islohi siyosii jomeai onruzai CHin. Az akhbori tarikhi malum meshavad, ki zamoni zindagii Konfutsiy- zamoni nooromi va pur az ziddiyatho va kashmakashhoi siyosi budaast. Nuktai asosii talimoti siyosii Konfutsiy on ast, ki baroi islohi davlat va suboti on boyad pesh az hama shakhsi avvali maqomi davlati – shoh, khoqon, amir shakhsiyati shoista boshad va dar mansabhoi davlati ashkhosi shoistaro guzorad. Az u pursidaand:

–«CHi kor boyad kard to khalq itoat kunad?»

Konfutsiy javob dodaast:

–«Agar odamoni odilro peshbari va noodilonro sabukdush kunand khalq itoat mekunad. Agar noodilonro peshbari va odilonro sabukdush kunand, khalq itoat namekunad.»[3]

Konfutsiy ba sunnatu marosimho maqomi baland doda shudaast. Ba aqidai Konfutsiy muhimtarin omil dar hifzi suboti siyosi va davlatdori bovari va imon ast.

Konfutsiy, chunon ki khudash borho taqid kardaast talimoti mazhabii toza naovardaast, balki u talab mekunad, ki aqidahoi mazhabii guzashtagon va sunnathoi onho bo jiddiyat va daqiq rioya va ijro karda shavand .

Dar talimoti mazhabii Konfutsiy «Osmon» (Tyan) mehvari asosi ast. On ham yak juzi tabiat va ham quvvai olii ruhoni meboshad, ki taqdiri tabiat va insonro muayyan mekunad. Manbai akhloqii inson niz az Osmon (Tyan) ast. Inson boyad muvofiqi on sifati akhloqie, ki ba u ato shudaast, amal kunad, khudro bo rohi omukhtan takomul dihad.

Falsafa va talimoti mazhabii Konfutsiy insonmehvar (antropotsentrist)-i meboshad. Dar markazi talimoti u nazariyai insoni komil- «Mardi najib» («Tszyun-Tszi»’) va Jen (jen) – odamiyat yo khud insondusti qaror dorad. Jen dar adolat, vafodori, sadoqat va g. zohir meshaval. YAke az aslpoyai talimoti Konfutsiy nazariyai «Syao», ehtiromi farzandon ba volidayn, kuhansolon meboshad. Insoni komil (Tszyun-Tszi) on insonest, ki usuli «Li»: odob, (etiqod), ehtiromro nisbat ba khalq, ehsonu ikrom ba volidayn va mudoro bo bolodastonro rioya mekunad.

Hamin tavr baroi payravoni Konfutsi hamaguna khidmat dar rohi barpo doshtani hayoti akhloqi va zindagii sharafatmandonai khalq ibodat baroi khudoi Osmon (Tyan) meboshad.

[1] Nig. Jon B. Nos. Tarikhi jomei adyon.- S.248.

[2]  Konfutsiy. Lun YUy.- \\ Drevne kitayskaya filosofiya. T. 1.-M.: Misl 1972.- S.143.

[3]  Jon B.Nos. Tarikhi jomei adyon.- S. 257.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

7_resize

DINI BAHOIYA

Bahoiya yake az junbishhoi mazhabii nimai duyumi asri XIX dar Eron ast, ki badan khudro …