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DINI MONAVIYA

Monaviya dinest, ki dar asri III melodi dar davrai saltanati khonadoni sosoni, dar zaminai islohi zardushtiya ba maydon omad. Asosguzori in din Moni (216-276)[1] bud.

Muhaqqiqon padari uro aslan az ahli Hamadon meshumorand, ki badan ba Bobil muhojirat karda, dar dehkadae nizdikii Taysafun zindagi kardaast. Moni dar hamin deha ba dunyo omada, dar javoni tahti sarparastii padarash tahsili khub mekunad. U kulliyai ilmhoi zamonash, az jumla falsafa va adabiyoti yunoni, musiqi, naqqoshivu suratgari, sitorashinosi va tibbro az khud karda, badan dar madrasai ruzgor darsi zindagi omukhta bud.

monaviyaDar sinni 25- solagi Moni khudro hamchun navovar va yak muslih (reformator)-i ijtimoi va mazhabi muarrifi mekunad. Talimoti monaviya fushurdae az unsurhoi dinhoi zardushtiya, nasroniya, va talimoti gnostiki yunoni va zuhdi hinduivu buddoiya tashakkulyofta ast. Az in ru, nizomi dinii Monaviya nizomi omekhta (eklektiki) meboshad. Moni aqida doshtaast, ki dinhoi zardushti, nasroni va buddoiya hama hamon yak dini rostinand, ki ba illati nafahmidani odamon tahrif shudaand.

Talimoti Moni ba ziddiyati sakhti mubadoni zardushtiya ru ba ru meshavad va nihoyat u majbur meshavad az Eron gurezad. In dar ahdi shoh SHopur bud. U avval ba Hinduston va badan ba Osiyoi Markazi (Turkiston)-u Hitoy hijrat karda, chand sole dar on joyho monda, ba targibi dini khud pardokhtaast. Obrazi Moni dar adabiyoti forsu tojik hamchun «suratgari deboi CHin» vase istifoda shudaast.

Moni tanho pas az vafoti SHopuri I, dar zamoni saltanati Hurmuzi Avval ba Eron murojiat mekunad. Pas az vafoti Hurmuzi Avval, ki ba Moni mukholifate nadosht, Bahromi CHahorum ba joyash nishast. Bahrom bo tahriku dassisai mubadon ba sarkubii Moni dastur medihad. Moniro dar shahri Jundishopur, voqe dar shimoli SHush dastgiru zindoni megardad. Uro dar on jo bo shikanja kushtand.

Talimoti diniyu falsafiimonaviya az du qism: ilohiyot va nizomot iborat ast. Moni bovari dorad, ki olami mavjud murakkab az du asli qadim: nur va zulmat ast va in du asl abadiyu azali -beogozu anjomand. Zindagii in jahoni omekhtashavii majburii ruh bo modda ast. Ravoni odami boyad say kunad, to khudro az asorati modda va nafsi ammora badar ovarad.

Muvofiqi talimoti monaviya, metavon guft, khudoe, ki jahonro ofaridaast shaytone besh nest va makhluqi u hama bad hastand.

Ahuramazdo va Ahriman (nur va zulmat) du irodai mustaqil va du nakhust- asli judogona hasti ba shumor meravand. Moni aqida dosht, ki hama ashyo az omekhtani du asli jovidon- nur va zulmat faroham meoyand.

Dar andaruni zulmat, ki asli modinai tabiat ast, anosiri sharr taraqqi mekunad va ba mururi zamon markaziyat meyoband va sababi po ba arsai vujud nihodani shayton meshavand. In shayton, ki nakhustin parvardai zihdoni otashini zulmat ast, ibtidoi faoliyati olam yo khud takondihandai on ba shumor meravad. In shayton az on lahzae, ki ba vujud omad, ba qalamravi podshohi rushnoi hamlavar shud. Podshohi qalamravi rushnoi, baroi on ki balogardone biyobad, nakhustinsonro ofarid. Pas az in bayni nakhustinson va shayton zadukhurdi shadide ba vuqu mepayvandad va dar on inson komilan shikast mekhurad va dar natija shayton panj unsuri zulmatro bo panj unsuri nuroni meomezad.

Hulosai kalom, insoni nakhustin ba khotiri on ba vujud omad, ki kori dushvori difo az olami rushnoi va zafar bar modda / zulmat /–ro anjom bidihad, vale dar in talosh u maglubi toriki gardid va dar natija olami rushnoi yak bakhsh az nuri khudro az dast dod va in nur dar zulmat jazb yo khud omekhta shud va boisi paydoishi jahon gardid. Ba hamin nahva metavon guft, ki zulmat dar natijai tamos giriftan bo nur rom va faol gardid. Vale az sui digar nur qismate az nuri khudro az dast dod va duchori tashvish va iztirob gardid. Maqsadi « padari rushnoi» az taslim kardani yak hissai khurde az nuri khud on bud, ki az peshrafti beshtari zulmat dar qalamravi nur peshgiri karda, ohista-ohista nuri mahbusshudaro ozod namoyad.

Moni in matlabro ba vositai ovardani yak tamsile tavzeh medihad. U meguyad, ki chunone ki chupon baroi najoti ramai khud az gurg chohe kand va dar on buzero raho kard. Vaqte ki gurg buzro did, khudro ba choh afkand va shubon ham fursatro ganimat shumorida, favran buzro az choh berun kashid va gurgro dar choh raho kard, to dar on jo jon suporad. Ba hamin tariq, yak hissai khurdu nochize az nur dar in chohi jahon raho shudaast, to moddaro bakhud jazb kunad. Az in ru, hadafi zindagi najot dodani ruhi mahbus az sharri modda ast[2] Moni, mafhumi «najot»-i masehiro gustarish doda, ba shevai mantiqi, jahonro zotan badsirisht medonist va in khud zaminai davati uro ba zuhd va riyozat tashkil kardaast. Inchunin aqida hast, ki mayl ba zuhdu riyozat doshtani talimoti Moni dar zaminai tasiri padarash ast, chunki u muvofiqi malumoti baze muhaqiqon dar halqai tariqati zohidon budaast.[3]

Muvofiqi talimot Moni odam asosan tasvire ast az yak hastii bartaru bolotar. U olate ast dar dasti padari rushnoi, ki ba vositai u nuri zindonishudaro ozod menamoyad. U olami asgar va oinai kulliyai qudrathoi zamin va osmon ast. Dar u ruh rushnoi ast va tan toriki. Vaqto, ki hamai ravonho az kulliyai tanho ozod shudand, jahon ba poyon merasad.

Mazhabi monaviya (ba nomi manikhey) az Bobul to Samarqand, az Afriqo to Turkistoni CHin va az Hindu Tibet to Avrupo intishor yofta bud va tasiri ziyode ba masehiyat va islom guzoshtaast. On dar barobari mehrparasti (mitraizm) az dinhoi jahonii guzashta meboshad.

[1]  Baze muhaqiqon soli vilodati Moniro 215 va 217 niz nishon dodaand.

[2]    Abbosi Mehrin. Falsafa va oyini Eroni boston, sah . 24– 25.

[3]  Meri Boys. Zoroastriysi:s.136

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