Home / Gunogun / DINI NASRONI

DINI NASRONI

Dini nasroni yo masehi (khristiani) [1] yake az dinhoi jahonii tavhidii somi ba shumor meravad, ki dar ogozi solshumorii melodi (erai nav) ba vujud omadaast. Solshumorii nav, yane melodi, az ruzi tavalludi Esoi Maseh (Isus Hristos) ogoz meshavad. In din dar ibtido hamchun yak firqa az dini yahudiya zuhur kard. Az in ru, asosi talimoti yahudiro, ki dar Tavroti Muso va digar kitobhoi paygambaron va shohoni yahudiya omadaast, qabul dorad va khudi kitobi muqaddasi nasroniyon- Bibliya az du kitob: «Ahdi qadim» va «Ahdi jadid» iborat ast.

PAYDOISHI DINI NASRONI

Sarchashmahoi asosi baroi sharhi hol va talimoti Esoi Maseh chor kitobi Injil: Matto, Markus, Luqo va YUhanno meboshad. Mundarijai in injilhoro asosan sharhi hol va talimoti Esoi Maseh tashkil mekunad. Zamoni navishta shudani Ijilho chunin ast: Injili Matto va Marqusro hududi 62-70-i melodi va Injili Luqo hududi 75-85 m. va Injili YUhanno az hama okhirtar, dar poyoni sadai avvali melodi yo ibtidoi sadai duyum.

isoi-masehGayr az sarchashmahoi mazhabi boz sarchashmahoi masehii gayriinjili, asarhoi tarikhii gayrinasronii yahudivu rumi va bozyofthoi tarikhi hastand.

Dini nasroni dar sharoite ba vujud meoyad, ki Falastin dar tahti saltanati rumiyon qaror dosht. Dar soli 63 to melod sarlashkari rumi Pompey pas az fathi SHom (Suriya) az muborizaho va zadukhurdi dokhilii yahudiyon istifoda namuda, Ierusalimro zabt namud. YAk qismati aholi, ki namekhost zeri bori hokimiyati istilogaroni Rum daroyad, dar mabadi Ierusalim zarfi se moh muqovimat mekunad. Vale nihoyat rumiyon muqovimatro shikasta, ba mabad dokhil gardida, muqovimonro nobud mekunand. Dar natija yahudiya ba hayati davlati Rum dokhil va ba hokimi SHom tobe karda meshavad. Vale bo vujudi in YAhudiya to andozae istiqloliyati khudro hifz mekunad. Dar okhiri asri yak to melod dar YAhudiya shohi zolime bo nomi Hirod ( Irod) hukumat mekard.

Dar hududi zamoni tavalludi Eso podshohi nomburdai YAhudiya Hirodi Kabir az jahon chashm pushid, va mulki Falastin bayni se pisarash taqsim karda meshavad. YAke az in nohiyaho, ki Eso dar on jo tavallud yoft, Jalil bud. Hukumati onro Hirod ba pisari duvvumash Hirod Antipus yo (Antipa) mesuporad.

Dar soli 6-umi erai nav hokimi rumi Kriniyus, ki poytakhtash dar SHom bud, dastur dod, ki mardumi Falastinro sarshumori namoyad, to mamuroni imperiya behtar bitavonand az onho boju khiroj bigirand. Eso dar in hangom 12-sola bud va in vaziyati mustamlikavi, norizoyati mardum va tugyonu isyoni ommaro bo chashmi khud medid.

Dar in davra firqahoi mazhabi va ahzobi siyosie baroi muboriza bo vaziyati zikrshuda tashkil meshudand. YAke az chunin firqahoi mazhabi, ki tavassuti YAhudo tashkil shuda bud, maruf bo nomi firqahoi «gayratmandon (zealot)-bud, ki dast ba asliha burda, bo shiorhoi «Hej mabude gayr az YAhvo nest va hej boje juz ba mabad naboyad pardokht» qiyom namudand. Markazi amaliyoti in firqa shahri Safuriyai nohiyai Jalil bud. Onho bad az tasarrufi anbori aslihai in shahr dast ba shurish zadand. In shurish ba qadre baroi rumiyon khatarnok bud, ki hokimi SHom Kvintiliy Var baroi sarkubii on majbur shud du legion sipohi rumiro ba on shahr ravona kunad. Dar asari on shahri Safuriya kharob va tumai otash gardid. Ziyoda az du hazor az tariqi ba salib kashidan, chun haftod sol pas az shurishi Spartak, mahkum va halok gardidand. In vaziyati sistemai imperiyai gulomdori, holati istibdodiyu mustamlikavi, shikasti payopai shurishho, qatlu khunrezihoi ziyod, nayoftani rohi khalosi az tariqi muborizavu shurishho, ki ba natija namerasidand zaminaro baroi bovarii mardum ba rasidani masehinajotbakhsh hamvor karda bud.

Dar chunin yak vaziyati mudhishi ravoni mubaligoni ziyode paydo shudand, ki navidhoi az bazuddi rasidani maseh («mashishakh»)-i najotbakhsh, firistodai Hudo medodand, ki mardumro khalos mekunad va «shohi voqeii yahudiya» megardad.

Tabiist, ki in hama sharoiti ijtimoiyu manavi va mazhabi zaminaro baroi paydoishi dini nasroni musoid karda budand.

YAke az muhimtarin hodisai tavalludi Eso on ast, ki Maryam modari u, na az shavharash YUsuf, balki az «Ruhulquds»- ruhi muqaddas, yane Hudo homila meshavad. Dar Injili Matto omadaast: mavludi Esoi Maseh chunin bud: «Vaqto ki modari u Maryam ba aqdi YUsuf daromad, pesh az on, ki hambistar shavad, malum gardid, ki vay az Ruhulquds homilador ast.» (Matto.1 : 18).

Az khudi hamin bobi Injil malum meshavad, ki chunin etiqodi bayni yahudiyon dar zaminai peshguii Tavrot ast. Va in peshgui chunin budaast: «Inak bokirae homila khohad shud va pisare khohad zoid va uro Imonuil khohand nomid, ki manoyash «Hudo bo most».» CHunin peshguiro dar «Injil» munajjimon niz khabar dodaand. Boyad guft, ki dar zamoni paydoishi dini nasroni Hudo nomidani insonho (odatan imperatoron) va ba tarzi istiori pisaroni Hudo khondani hamai insonho va hamchunin bovari ba homila shudan va tavallud kardan az Hudo hodisai yagona nabudaast. Ba mo malum, ki imperatori mashhuri Rum YUliy Sezar khudo elon shuda bud va valiahdi u, pisarkhondash Oktavian (Avgust) niz pisari Hudo donista meshud. Dar borai modari Oktavian Atiya ovozae pahn karda budand, ki vay guyo to tavalludi Oktavian baroi ibodat ba mabadi Apollon omada, on jo dar takhti ravoni khud khobida ast va dar on hangom ba bagali u more mekhazad, ki on khudi Apollon buda; pas az nuh moh Atiya imperatori badi (yane Oktavian)-ro tavallud kardaast. Hamin tavr, vay pisari Apollon elon shuda bud. Guzashta az in, bisyor mavrid dar Ahdi Qadim va qismathoi qadimi Ahdi Jadid hamai insonho pisari Hudo nomida shudaast. CHunon ki dar bobi Buddoiya va Zardushtiya niz gufta shud, chunin bovari dar dinhoi digar niz joy doshtand.

Eso muvofiqi akhbori Injil dar ayyomi Hirod dar Bayt-Lahmi YAhudo tavallud yoftaast. (Mat, 2. 1. ) Tarikhi tavalludi Eso niz misli tarikhi tavalludi Ibrohim va Muso meboshad. CHunki podshoh Hirod vaqte az munajjimon khabari tavalludi «SHohi YAhudiyon»- Esoro mefahmad, dar fikri nobud kardani in kudak meaftad. Tavalludi Eso musodif bo marakai sarshumorii aholii Falastin bud,[2] ki YUsuf baroi nomnavisi az Nosiriya bo nomzadash Maryam ba YAhudo ba shahri Dovud, ki Bayt-Lahm nom dosht, meravad. Dar hamin safar Eso dar shafati qutani ramai chupone tavallud meshavad. Dar hamin jo uro munajjimone, ki az SHarq baroi didorbinii u omada budandu ba Hirod khabari tavlidi uro dodand, ba didori u musharraf shudand, uro parastish kardand va baroyash ganjina va hadyahoi kheshro taqdim namudand.

Muvofiqi akhbor, chun YUsuf va Maryam az taqibi podshoh Hirod khabar yofta budand, bo kudak ba Misr firor mekunand va Hirod farmon medihad, ki dar Bayt- Lahm va atrofi on tamomi kudakoni az dusola kamtarro ba qatl rasonand. Eso va volidaynash az Misr bad az margi Hirod ba sarzamini Isroil ba shahri Nosira barmegardand.

Dar tarikh nisbat ba ovoni kudaki va javonii Eso malumoti daqiq mavjud nest. Haminash malum ast, ki khonavodai u az tabaqai miyonai aholi buda, khelo muminu dindor budaand. YUsuf ba kasbi najjori mashgul budaast, Esoi Maseh niz dar ovoni javoni misli u najjori karda, bo rozigii khonavodaash dar kaliso ba ibodat va mutoliai kitobhoi muqaddas mashgul shuda, dar hamon jo tahsili ilm niz kardast. Az ovoni kudaki ba masoili mazhabi aloqamand budani Esoro az Injili Luqo metavon daryoft.

Hulosa, roviyoni tarikh davrai zindagii uro to hajdahsolagi solhoi «sukut va khomushi» guftaand.

YAhudiyon intizori zuhuri shakhsiyati najotbakhsh-maseh budaand. In bovari va umedvori barobari afzudani istibdodi mustamlikavi va zulmi shohoni mahalli qavitar meshud, shikasti shurishhovu junbishhoi mardumi va ba khunu khok kashidani onho, afzudani fasod va zulmu istibdod, umedvoriro ba ruzi jazo beshtar mekard. Dar chunin yak sharoite nabie bo nomi YAhyoi tamiddihanda (poku omurzishdihandai gunohon bo ob) zuhur kard, ki meguft: «Tavba kuned, zero ki malakuti osmon nazdik ast». YAhyo tamomi ahli Ierusalim va YAhudo va muzofoti Urdunro tamid medihad va bar onho elom medorad: «Man shumoro bo ob baroi tavba tamid mediham, vale on ki pas az man meoyad, (Eso- A.SH) az man tavonotar ast; man sazovori on nestam, ki poyafzoli uro bardoram, u shumoro bo Ruhulquds va otash tamin khohad dod». (Mat.3:11.)

Eso az Jalil ba Urdun omada, bo YAhyo vomekhurad va ba vositai u tamid meyobad va dar hamin jo ruhi khudoi ba u nozil megardad. «Va Eso tamid yoft, darhol az ob baromad va inak osmon ba rui u kushoda shud va ruhi Hudoro did, ki chun kabutare nozil shuda, bar u qaror megirad. Va inak ovoze az osmon rasid, ki meguft: «In ast PisariMahbubiMan, kihusni tavajjuhiMan bar Ust». \Mat.3:17

Eso niz chund digar paygambaroni somi mavridi ozmoishu imtihon qaror megirad. Iblis dar biyobon ruhi Esoro dar chan mavrid meozmoyad. Az hamin lahzaho talimoti Eso ogoz meshavad. Asosi talimoti Eso ruhoniakhloqivu manavist va on goh oshkoro va gohe ramzi bayon shudaast.

Talimoti Eso dar mavridi Hudo chandon rushan ast. U az Hudo hamchun Padar yod mekunad. Padari osmon dar matni Ahdi Qadim va Ahdi jadid ba manii tanho padari Eso nest. Harchand nasroniyon badan chunin mahdud fahmidaand. Hudo Padari istiorii tamomi insoniyat ast. Az in ru «Padar» ham ba manoi vase – hamchun mazhari buzurgvori va ham ba manoi tangi kalima, yane padari tabii, hamon padari voqeii hayotbakhsh ba kor raftaast. Masalan, u bo murojiat ba mardum (insonho), ba manii vase meguyad: «…to ki farzandiPadarikhud, kidar osmon ast, gaded,.. yokhud «Pas komil boshed, chunonkiPadarishumo, ki dar Osmon ast, komil ast». (Matto 5:45-48). Eso ba muminon chunin mefarmoyad: «…Padarishumo tamomi ehtiyoji shumoro, pesh az on ki talab kuned, medonad. Pas ba in mazmun duo gued:

«Ey Padari mo, ki dar osmoni!

Ismi tu muqaddas bod;» (Mat. 6:8-9).

Hamchunin dar Injilho Esoro goh «Pisari Odam» (Mat.8: 20) goh « Pisari Hudo» mukhotab mekunand. (Mat.8: 29, 9: 6). Va khudi Eso bo iborathoi «Padari Hud», «Ey Padar», «Padaram» ba Hudo murojiat kardaast: «Pas har ki maro dar nazdi mardum etirof kunad, Man niz uro dar nazdi Padari Hud ki dar osmon ast, etirof khoham kard» (Mat. 10:32).

Dar Injili YUhanno, kiokhirin Ijil, zindaginomai Eso ast beshtar kalimai «Padar» va «Pisar» dar manii khosash omadaast: «.Hudo jahonro chunon dust dosht, ki Pisari yagonai khudro dod, to har ki ba u imon ovarad, talaf nashavad, balki hayoti jovidoni yobad.» (YUh. 3:16).

Pas metavon guft, ki khudoshinosi dar dini nasroni yak davrai tahavvulro az sar guzaronidaast. Dar avval- dar Ahdi Qadim va Injilhoi avval Hudo aksaran hamchun Padari hamai insoniyat shinokhta shudaast va hamai insoniyat pisaroni U, vale badan Hudo tanho Padari Eso va Eso Pisari yagonai U va dar nihoyat khudi Eso Hudo ba qalam doda shudaast. Dar idomai oyati favquzzikr omadaast: «.Hudo Pisari khudro ba jahon baroi on nafiristodaast, ki bar jahon dovari kunad, balki baroi on ki jahon ba vositai u najot yobad».( YUh. 3: 17).

YAk manii tozae, ki dar Injili YUhanno paydo mekunem tashbehi istiorii Eso ba nur ast. Eso mefarmoyad: «Mannur hastam, ki ba jahon omadaam, to har ky ba Man imon ovarad, dar toriky namonad». (YUhanno 12: 46). Dar ogozi hamin kitob Eso chun nuri haqiqi muarrify meshavad: «On nuri haqiqy, ki har odamro munavvar megardonad, ba jahon omadany bud», «u dar jahon bud va jahon ba vositai u ba vujud omad va jahon uro shinokht», (YUhanno 1: 9,10).

Eso talimoti khudro dar borai malakuti osmon va ahkomi Hudo aksaran dar shakli ramzu istiora va misolhoi ayony bayon mekunad. Muborizai u asosan bo ruhoniyon (farisiyon)-i yahudiya meboshad. «Onho,- ba qavli u ,- kurone hastand, ki ba kuron rahnamoy mekunand, va har goh kure ba kuri digare rohnamoy kunad, har du dar choh khohand aftid».(Mat.15:14)

Dushmanii ruhoniyati yahudy nisbat ba Eso shiddat megirad va dar nihoyat sarkohonon va pironi qavmi yahud uro ba hokim Ponti Pilati Rumy taslim mekunand. Bo isroru darkhosti onho Pilat Esoro ba qatl mahkum kard. Uro az tariqi ba salib kashidan qatl mekunand, vale pas az dafn, ruzi digar darmeyoband, ki U dar qabr nest va farishtai Hudo khabar medihad, ki U ehyo shudaast. Nihoyat bad az in hodisa dar ruzi chihilum Eso dar Jalil bo yozdah shogirdonash mujaddadan vomekhurad va ba onho vasiyat mekunad, ki khalqhoro ba dini u davat kunand va «…ba ismi Padar va Pisar va Ruhulquds tamid dihand». (Matto 28: 19).

[1]   Dar adabiyothoi forsiyu islomii klassikii murodifhoi digari in nom- masehi, isavi, tarsoi istifoda shudaast.

[2]   In jo dar mavridi zamoni nomnavisi va yo sarshumori aholi dar sarchashmaho ikhtilof ast, chunonki dar bolo gufta shud hangomi in sarshumori dar soli 6-umi erai nav dar 6-solagii Eso buda, vale dar sarchashmahoi digar onro musodif bo tavalludi Eso medonand.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

mazdak

TALIMOTI MAZDAK

Moni talim medod, ki jahon natijai asorati nur /ravon/ dar zindoni zulmat /modda/ ba vujud …