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DINI SINTO

Dini Sinto (yo SHintu – Sintoizm) dini milliyu davlatii Jopun, yake az se dini marufi Hovari Dur meboshad. In dinro «mazhabi vatanparasti» nomidaand. CHunki dar on muhabbatu ehsosoti bepoyon nisbat ba khoki Vatan va imperatori khud tajassum yoftaast.

sintoKalimai Sinto aslan az kalimai khitoi (SHin-Tao) buda ba manii «Roh yo tariqi khudoyon» tarjuma meshavad. Tamomi tasavvuroti kosmogoniyu tarikhi va etiqodi bostonii mardumi jopuni bo asotiri sinto vobastagi dorad. Muvofiqi on jazirahoi Jopun khosaofaridai khudoyon ast. Muvofiqi asotiri sintoi, ki dar akhbori tarikhii jopunii asri UP-USH m. «Kodziki» va «Nahone» omada ast, dar ibtido olami vujud suratu vazi oshuftae doshta, omekhtavu dar ham bar ham budaast. Bo guzashti tuli zamon osmon va muhiti on az ham judo gashta, az mobayni kayhoni tiravu tumanolud chandin khudoyon namoyon gashtaand. Hudoyoni mutaaddid bo kadom sababe ba tadrij az bayn meravand, to saranjom dar sahnai hasti, besh az dukhudoe, ki yake muannas, yane olihai zanona, bo nomi Izonamy va digare muzakkor- khudoi mard bo nomi Izonagy boqi namemonand.

In du khudo pule bayni Zamin va Osmon mesozand. Izonagi az farozi osmon bo on pul furu omada, nayzai javohirnishinu murassai khudro dar shurobae, ki muhitro faro girifta bud, furu burda, onro on qadar ba ham meomezad, ki on ba khamirai galizu sakht tabdil meshavad va vaqto ki nayzaro az on burun mekashad, chakrahoi moee, ki az nuki on furu merekht, rui ham gird omada, ba surati jazirae darmeoyand. On du khudoi naru moda bar farozi on jazira maskan ikhtiyor mekunand. CHande pas khudoi moda Izonamy dar on jo tavallud mekunad va az shikami vay hasht jazirai digari Jopun ba dunyo meoyand. Hamchunon az on oliha avval khudoyoni digar ba dunyo meoyand va okhirini onho Kagu-Tasugi-khudoi garmo va otash bud. Vay hangomi vilodat modari khudro bo shulai vujudi khesh mesuzad.

Hudomard Izonagy az in sabab dar gazab shuda Kagu-Tasugiro bo zarbai shamsher az poy darovarda pora-pora mekunad va dar natija az har porai jasadi u dar rui bahr jazirahoi digar ba vujud omadand. Pas az margi oliha Izonamy ba olami poyin, ki onro sarzamini «YAomi» guyand, meaftad va chande pas khudomard Izonagy ba justujui oliha Izonamy ba olami zeri zamin furu raft, to uro ba olami alo bozgardonad. Vale vaqto ki oliha Izonamiro paydo mekunad, khele der karda bud va paykari u pusida, kirmho va khazandaho tani uro faro girifta budand, va surati zishte dosht. In ast ki Izonamy uro az nigaristan ba surati khud man karda, Vale pas az on, ki Izonagy az shonai chubini khud otash ravshan karda, uro did, Izonamy faryodzanon ba u dar meaftad, ki tu maro sharmanda kardy.

Dar on olami zulmony bayni Izonagy va Izonamy zadukhurd ba vujud meoyad. Izonamy az paykarai zishti khud khudoi soyiqaro ba vujud ovarda, az pasi shavharash payo-pay mefiristad. Bo in niz qanoat nakarda, yak hazoru ponsad ruhi shaytonii siflaro ba jangi u mefiristad. Izonagy bo hamai onho jangida, shikast medihad. Dar okhir Izonamy khud bo on paykari zisht ba jangi u meoyad, vale dar in hangom Izonagy az olami jahhanami sifli guzashta, ba olami bolo rasida bud. U bo sangi buzurge dari on jahhanamro mebandad. Sipas baroi tahorat va pok shudan libosu kamarbandu asoyashro dar ovarda, ba bahri muhit furu meravad. Har yake az porchahoi libosi vay ba surati khudoe daromadaand.

Dar kitobi «Kuziki» omadaast, ki chun Izonagi dar bahr furu rafta ba rasme, ki to hanuz nazdi Jopuniho malum ast guslu tahorat kard, az gushai chashmi chapi u buzurgtarin va muhimtarin khudoi Jopuniho Amaterasu olihai Oftob ba vujud omad. CHun bori digar gusl kard, az gushai chashmi rosti u khudoi digare ba nomi Tuki- YAmi yo khud olihai Qamar (moh) paydo shud va bo hamin nahva khudoi tufon bo nomi Suso-no-vu va g-ra ba vujud omadand va har yake dar osmon ba masnadi khud nishastand.

Dar in asotiri kosmogonii Jopuniho faqat sahnai ofarinishi insonro namebinem. Malum meshavad, ki inson az khudi khudoyon ba vujud omadaast yo khud ajdodi inson khudi khudoi Amaterasu budaast. CHande, pas az vuqui hodisai favquzzikr, khudoi Oftob Amaterasu az farozi falaki osmon bar zamini khoki nazar afkand va did, ki farzandoni khudoi tufon dar rui u hukumat namuda, vazi on jaziraro khelo oshuftavu kharob kardaand. Az mushohidai in sakht gamgin shuda, pas naberai khud «Ni-ni-gi»-ro amr namud, ki az osmon furu omada, ba on jazoir ravad va az nomi u hukmfarmoi kunad. On sukhanone, ki u ba naberaash farmuda to imruz juzi duoi mardumi Jopuni meboshad va taqriban chunin ast; «Dar in sarzamini borvaru sabz va dar on mazraai birinjho (sholi) -i toza boyad furud omada va kori on joro ba somon ovari». Ni-ni-gi farmoni modarbuzurgi khudro itoat kard va nakhust ba jazirai «Kasoti» furud omad. Dar on jo ruzgore bizist va farzande zoid bo nomi

Jimmu Tennuon- avalin khudoe meboshad, ki dar paykari odami mujassam gashta va u nakhustin imperaturi Jopun ast. U badan jazirai Hondaro ba tasarrufi khud darovarda, poytakhti khudro ba on jo muqarrar kard. Az in ru mardumi Jopun na tanho imperatori khudro pisari khudoi Oftob (Amaterasu) medonand, balki mutaqidand, ki hamai jazoir va mardumi in sarzamini oftobi (dar parchami Jopun qursi Oftob munakis ast) az mabdai ilohi sarchashma giriftaand. In nuqtaro bisyor vaqt hukkom va imperatori Jupon baroi barangekhtani ruhiyai milli ba kor burdaand.

Jopuniho asosan bisyorkhudoparast (politeist) meboshad. Onho khudoyoni khudro ba hashtsad guruh, ki har guruhe shomili hazoron khudo meboshad taqsim kardaand. In anjumani beshumori khudoyonro Hudoi Oftob Amaterasu sarvari mekunad. Mabadi u dar shahri Iza az muqaddastarin ibodatgohi on kishvar ba shumor meravad. Dar dini sintoi khudoyoni mazohiri tabiat chun: YAmatsumi (khudoi kuhho), Vatatsumi (khudoi bahrho), Mikumarinokami (khudoi chashmaho) va inchuni arvohi nihon dar rustanihovu hayvonot va omili kamol va hatto mafhumhovu quvvahoi gunogun chun: aql-omoikane, neki-naoki, badi-magotsuh, quvahoi marmuzi irfoni- ihahi mavridi parastishu sitoishand. [1]

Imruzho aksaran jopuniho dar javobi savoli ba kadom dinu mazhab munosibat doshtanashon, khudro buddoi meguyand. Hamchunin aksari jopuniho sinturo na hamchun din balki, majmui marosimu sunnathoi millii khud medonand. Hele kam shakhsone paydo meshavand, ki dinu mazhabi khudro sinto hisoband.

Dar asri shashumi melodi dini buddoi dar sarzamini Jopun vorid gardida, nakhust on dar bayni tabaqoti ashrof payravoni ziyod paydo karda, ba tadrij bo dini sinto omezishu tarkib meyobad. YAke az rohhoi sintez-tarkibyobii dini buddoi talqini khudoyoni jopuni hamchun mazhari Buddo dar tavalludi dubora meboshad. Az jumla Amoterasu (khudoi Oftob)-ro hamon zuhuri komili Buddo dar kishvari Jopun ba qalam dodaand. Ba hamin tariq, har yake az khudoyoni digarro niz Buddoi digar shumoridaand. Hulosa, raviyai makhayanai buddizm az tariqi CHin ba Jopun nufuz namuda, baroi inkishofi farhang va davlatdorii in kishvar tasiri ziyode guzosht.

Az firqahoi nisbatan navi buddoiya dar Jopun Dzedo-syu asosguzorash Honen (1133-1212), dar CHin(Hitoy) Tsizintu- («Zamini pok»), va firqai Nitiren- syu ( yo Hokke-syu) bo nomi asosguzorash Nitiren (1222-1282) nomida shudaast va nihoyat yake az firqahoi marufi buddizmi jopuni Dzen – buddizmro nom burdan mumki ast, ki dar asri VII- VIII ba Jopun az CHin vorid gardidaast.

Nogufta namonad, ki dar inkishofi madaniyati millii Jopunho naqshi Dzen khele buzurg ast. Estetikai Dzen shinokhtu fahmishi zeboi buda, az didgohi Dzen dar tamomi sohahoi zindagonii Jopuniho, az choynushi va mehmondori to musobiqoti samurayi (javonmardi), huzur dorad.

Dar barobari buddizm ba hayoti madaniyu mazhabii jopuniho tasiri dinu oini konfutsiy niz kam nest. Alalkhusus dar asri XVII dar davrai khotimai parokandagii siyosi va ogozi markaziyatyobi va mutahidshavii kishvari Jopun tavajjuh ba dini konfutsiy meafzoyad.

Vale dar okhiri asri H1H va ibtidoi asri HH dini sintoi ideologiyai rasmii davlati va asosi meyorhovu arzishhoi akhloqi megardad.

[1] G.E.Svetlov, Put bogov (Sinto v istorii YAponii) M: Misl, 1985.

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