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DINI YUNONIYONI BOSTON

Kishvare, ki sharqiyon onro YUnon va garbiyon ba payravii rumiyon Grek (Stgeeee) yo Gresiya menomand, dar guzashta khudro Helenes va sarzamini khudro Hellas (Ellada) menomidaand. Dar YUnon du qabati tamaddun: tooriyoi va oriyoi kashf shudaast. To dokhilshavii khalqhoi oriyoi va tashakkulyoftani tamadduni oriyoi vujudi osori tamadduni kuhani mahallii “minovu mikei”ro dar jazirai Krit bostonshinoson kashf kardaand. Voridshavii mardumi oriyoi helenho az shimolu sharqi nimjazirai Balkan dar hazorai duvvumi t.m. budaast. Helenho bo ajdodi oriyoinii eroniyon va hindu avrupoi hama az yak reshavu buna baromada va az jumla nomi chahor qabilai niyogoni oriyonii yunoniyon dar ashori Homer zikr shudaast. YAke az on chahor qabila Ashyonho (AsIaeapz), duvvumin Ionianho (1oshapz), savvumin Duriyoho( OopapA va chahorumin Aeoliyonho(AeoNapz) budaand. Az in qaboil yake ionianho az nimjazirai Balkan guzashta, dar sohilhoi garbii Osiyoi Hurd maskan giriftand va sharqiyon bo nomi hamin qabila (Ayuniyon) in sarzaminro badan YUnon nom kardaand.[1]

image014Sarchashmaho baroi omukhtani aqoidi diniyu mazhabi va marosimhoi YUnoni boston (asri klassiki) khele farovonand. Bozyoftho va yodgorihoi arkheologi, boqimondahoi mabadho, qurbongohho, tasvir va mujassamai khudoyon az jumlai on sarchashmaho meboshand. Dar barobari in nomgui ziyode az yodgorihoi khatti, tadqiqothoi tarikhi falsafi va asarhoi asotirivu badeii on davra to ba mo omada rasidaast. Namunai on «Iliada» va «Odisseya»-i Homer (naz. ba a. 1H-U111 t.m), «Metomorfoza»-i shoiri Rumi Ovidiya, osori lirikii Alkman, Stesikhor, Ivik, Pindar; fojianomahoi Eskhil, Safokol, Evripid; hamchunin osori muarrikhon va faylasufon Herodot, Fukidid, Plutarkh, Ksenofont, Aflotun, Arastu va khatibi mashhur rumi Tsitseron (Siseron) shuda metavonad.

Hamin tavr, aqoidi dinii yunoniyoni boston bisyorkhudoii navi oriyoni meboshad. CHunon ki dar bolo zikr shud, tarikh dar mavridi hujumho va sukunat ikhtiyor kardani qabilahoi oriyoni dar sarzamini YUnon va tasiri onho ba tamaddun va dinu parastishhoi YUnoniyon shavohidi ziyode dorad.

Dini yunoniyon bisyorkhudoii tashakkulyofta dar sathu shakli «anjumani khudoyon» budaast. Tasavvuroti dinii klassikii yunoniyon bo tasavvuroti digar khalqhoi oriyoi alalkhusus bo hindu eroniyon qarobat dorad. Hamchunon ki dar dinhoi hindu eroni parastishi Devpiter (yo Devpeder)-padari osmon ba Demeter -khudoi modarzamin mashhur budaast, yunoniyon niz Zevus (hamon Devasi hindu oriyoni) va Demeterro parastish mekardand.Dar bayni yunoniyoni ahdi klassiki inchunin odati digari umumioriyoni nushidani nushobai sarkhushkunanda pesh va bad az marosimi qurboni ba iftikhori khudoyon vujud doshta. YAke az nishonahoi digari aloqamandii etiqodi yunoniyoni ahdi klassik bo parastishhoi oryoi vujudi parastishi gov yo barzagov meboshad. Dar in bora tasvirhoi ziyodi barzagovho va sahnahoi jangi barzagov shahodat medihad.

YUnoniyon, asosan, bar aksi oriyoihoi hindu eronii qadim, murdahoi khudro dar khok yo bo tobut yo betobut, meguronidand va ba vujudi ruhi inson pas az marg dar zeri zamin dar qalamravi Aida va dovarii amoli odamon dar on jo bovari doshtand. Baroi yunoniyoni ahdi klassik mudhishtarin gunoh yo oru nomus gur nakarda, yo bo obru gur nakarda mondani murda budaast. In yake az nishonahoi ehtirom va parastishi ajdodon ba shumor meraft.

Inchunin dar bayni yunoniyon parastishi qahramonon ba darajai khudoyon quddusiyat paydo kardani onho, parastishhoi mahalli dar simoi qahramon, khudoyoni avlodi, qabilavi va dar nihoyat homiyoni shahrdavlat (polis)-ho rivoj doshtand.

Dar davrai tashakkul yoftani khudoyoni homii shahrdavlatho dini yunoniyon khususiyati dinhoi milliyu davlatiro kasb mekunand.

Bad az marhalai parastishhoi polisi davrai tashakkuli dini umumiyunoni hamchun ideologiyai vahdati siyosii yunoniyon ogoz meshavad. Sokhtori ashrofii anjuman (panteon)-i khudoyoni osmon bo sarvarii khudoi khudoyon Zevs namunai idealii sokhtori siyosii markaziyatyofta, nuskhai bargardoni sokhtori jomeai aristokratiyai gulomdori va ideologiyai davlati yagonai mutamarkazi bud.

[1]  Mufas. nig.: Ali Asgari Hikmat. Tarikhi adyon.S. 78-80.

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