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DINU OINHOI ORIYONI – ERONI

Sarchashmahoi asosii dinhoi hindu oriyoi ki malumoti imruzai dinshinoson oid ba etiqodi qavmhoi eroninajod ba onho asos yoftaast iboratand: kitobi muqaddasi hinduiya Vedho, va kitobi muqaddasi zardushtiyon Avesto va tarjumaho va tafsirhoi pahlavii on, va osori digari pahlavi- Bundahishn, Dotastoni dinik, Guzidahoi «Zodasparam», Menukhirad, Ardavirnoma, Dinkard, Bahman YAsht, Hayotkori Zomospik, Pandnomai Zardusht khamchunin «SHokhnoma»-i Hakim Abulkosim Firdavsi va shokhnomhoi manzumu mansuri pesh az u:Masudi Marvazi, Abumuayyadi Balkhi, Abumansur va Daqiqi va baze katibahoi mazhabiyu tarikhi, ki okhiron kashf gardida va khamchunin malumoti muarrikhonu mutafakkironi yunonivu rumi: Herodot, Ksenofan, Fukidid, Plutarkh va Justin va bozyoftkhoi bostonshinoson asos yoftaand.

zoroastrizm-zoroastrismDinkhoi eroni yak sarchashmai umumi bo dinu oyinkhoi khinduavrupoi dorand. Masalan, nomi khudoi yunoniyon Zevs va kalimai lotini deus (khudo) va khindui dayva va eroni dev yo div az yak asli khinduavrupoi-dayva girifta shudaast. CHunin umumiyat bayni mafkhumkhoi avestoi va vedoi va zaboni khinduii qadim chun: qonuni umumi, joni jakhon-asha (aves, asha; forsii qadim-arto; khind. qad.-rta) va mafkhumi qurboni (ovest.-yaza; fors. qad.- yaza) istilokhi mubad (aves. –zautar; khind. qad.- khotar) va shirai sarkhushkunanda (aves. khauma; khind. qad.- soma) dida meshavad, ki khud vakhdatu kheshovandii tamaddunu dinu oinkhoi oriyonikhoi khindi,eroniyu avrupoiro dar gnesiz (kholati ibtidoi)-i onkho nishon medikhad.

Dar in davra khudoyoni mavridi etiqodi khalqkhoi khindu oriyoi ba du dasta judo meshavand: yak gurukhro dayva (khindu. qad. deva) va gurukhi digarro asura (avest-akhura; khind.qad.asura) menomidaand. Inro niz boyad guft, ki imkon doshtaast khatto yak qabila, kham ba dayva va kham ba asura etiqod doshta boshand, yo yakero parastand, ibodat kunand ba digare khusumat varzand.[1]

Niyogoni mo dar ibtido tabiat: oftob, mokh, sitoragon, khok, otash, ob va bodro meparastidaand. Mokhiyatan dinkhoi in davraro dinkhoi tabiii qabilavi-avlodi nomidan ravost. Etiqodi eroniyon bisyorkhudoi (poletizm) va gokhe sanavi budaast. Hosatan parastishi Hurshed bo nomi Mekhr (Mitra) va Mokh bo nomi Afrodit roij budaast. Mekhr khudoi rushnoi, khudoi khaqiqat ast, tanzimkunandai korkhoi olam, khomii mazlumon, khudoi jangu nabardkho budaast, ki tamomi qaboil va tavoifi oriyoni bostoni dar khar jo va khar kishvare uro meshinokhtand va mesutudand. Nomi in khudo dar Rigveda niz ziyod omadaast.

Oini mekhrparasti (mitraizm) talimoti khudro dar asosi falsafai najoti fardi yo infirodi bunyod nikhoda bud. YAne khar fard boyad dar fikri najoti khud, az tariqi tay namudani markhilakhoi muayyan boshad.

Dar mekhrparasti shakhsi mumin boyad imtikhoni sakhtero meguzasht, ki iborat az: 1) gusli tamid, 2) marosimi pok kardani gunokhkhon 3) marosimi masrafi ob, non va sharobi muqaddas, 4) marosimi niyoish, 5) riyozat, 6) qurboni kardan.

Oini Mekhrparasti, bad az islokhoti mazkhabii Zardusht niz tasiri ziyode dar Eroni boston doshtaast. Mitra natankho dar Eroni boston, balki bayni khalqkhoi somi niz bo nomi «SHamas» mashkhur buda ast. Uro khamchun dikhandai shukukh va azamat ba shokhon meshinokhtand. Az in ru pas az Akhuromazdo u olitarin maqomro dar darbori shokhoni eroni doshtaast.

Mekhrparasti bo nomi «mitraizm» dar imperiyai Rum to khududi asri IV melodi dar Osiyoi Hurd, Afriqo, Avrupo nufuzi ziyod paydo karda bud. In din ba gnostikkhoi yunoni, dinkhoi monavi va nasroni, tasavvufi islomi tasir guzoshta ast.

«Kayumarsiya» va «Zarvoniya»

Sachashmakho az vujudi du oyini digari eroni: «Kayumarsiya» va «Zarvoniya» pesh az dini Zardusht malumot dodaand.In du oini bostoni bar poyai muborizai nur va zulmat ustuvor budaand. Dar khardu yazdon (khudoi taolo) ofarandai kham nur va kham zulmat ast. Zarvon-kham yak nav din va kham yak nav falsafai ilkhodi muarrifi kardaand.

Dar matni zarvoniya omadaast, ki Zarvon intizori tavalludi farzande bo nomi Hurmuzd bud, ammo ba shakku shubkha rokh dod. Az on shakku shubkha nutfai Akhriman niz khamchun dugoniki Hurmuzd dar shikim paydo shud. Zarvon gufta bud, khar kadome pesh tavallud shavad podshokhiro bar u khokhad dod. Az in khabar Akhriman ogokh shud va pesh az mavrid shikami modarro darida berun omad. Zarvon onro ba dast girift, ki khele zishtu badbuy bud. Uro raho karda guft , pisari u naboyad chunin zishtu badbuy boshad. Pas Hurmuz tavallud shud. Zarvon mekhost podshohii olamro ba u suporad, vale Ahriman sukhanoni uro ba khotirash ovarda, guft, «qavlu paymon naboyad shikast». Zarvon loiloj ba Ahriman 9000 sol ijozati hokimiyatro dod va pas az on davroni hokimiyati Hurmuzd ogoz meshavad. In ustura az navi usturahoi hindu eronist, az in ru tarikhi paydoishi zarvoniya niz pesh az islohoti Zardusht boyad boshad.

Nogufta namonad, ki Ozarparasti(khudoi «Agni» dar Vedau az rasmu odobi qadimi eroniyon budaast. Baroi onho otash doroi ahamiyati khose bud. Onro bo tashrifot va manosiku marosimi muayyane parastish mekardaand. Partoftani shokhai khushbui barsuma va nushidani nushobai haumo dar hangomi ibodati otash niz az marosimhoi tozardushtii eroniyon budaast.

[1] Istoriya Tadjikskogo naroda, T.1 pod red chlen.kor.AN SSSR. B.G. Gafurova i M: Nauka, 1969.-S.168-169

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