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DIN VA ETIQODHOI BOBILIYONI QADIM

Bayni solhoi 5300 to 4000-um t.m. dar vodii Baynanahrayn dar yak vaqt du tamadduni buzurg: sumery (shumery) va akody ba vujud omada bud. Sumer nohiyai janubi yo Baynannahrayn qismati poyonii onro dar hamsoyagii Haliji Fors ishgol karda bud. In qavm ziyoda az 3 hazor sol pesh az melod dar on nohiya sukunat doshtaand va doroi tamaddunu farhangi kuhansole budaand. Dar natijai koftu kovho- hafriyoti bostonshinoson osori garonbahoe az tamadduni bostonii in sarzamin ba dast omadaast. Nohiyai akod dar shimoli Baynannahrayn, vodii Frot voqe.

vavilon-drevniy-gorod-1

Bobil*(yo Bobiliston- Vavilon) yake az markazhoi tamadduni bostoni ba shumor meravad. CHun dar Misr, dar Bobiliston niz memori, alalkhusus sokhtmoni mabadhoi azim rasm shuda budand. Burji Bobil (vavilonskaya bashnya), ki dar Tavrot va Quron niz yodovari meshavad va inchunin qasru mabadhoi marufi ziyode dar in davra bunyod karda meshavad. Dar qissahoi islomi tamadduni bobili va sokhtani burji nomburdaro bo shakhsiyati Namrud (Nimrud) marbut donistaand.

Baynannahrayn dar zamoni podshohii Hammurapi(1792-1750 t.m.) ba yak kishvari yagonai Bobiliston muttahid karda meshavad. Maruftarin yodgorii khattii davrai hokimiyati Hammurapi « Majmui qonunho»-i ust, ki avvalhoi a.HH. bostonshinoson hangomi hafriyot sutuni sangie paydo kardand, ki in qonunho dar boloi on navishta shuda budand

Bobil az majmui davlatshahrhoe, ki har kadom hokimiyati mustaqilu khudmukhtor doshtand tashakkul yofta bud. Hususiyati muhimi farhangiyu madanii davlatshahrho dar tamaddunhoi misri, bobili va Amrikoi Lotin az on iborat budaast, ki dar markazi on odatan mabadhoi azimi mazhabi bunyod mekardand va in anana az khususiyathoi muhimi dinhoi milli-davlati bud. In guna mabadhoi azim dar markazi davlatshahrho ham azamatu shahomati hokimiyati davlati va ham shuhratu maqomi ijtimoii dinhoi milliro tajassum mekardand. Mabadaho na tanho markazhoi mazhabiyu manavi balki markazhoi iqtisodiyu khojagi, amonat- nigahdori sarmoyai mardum niz budaand.

Az tarikhi tamaddun malum ast, ki dar SHumeru Bobil ilm va farhang dar nihoyati rushd va taraqqi budaast. SHahrsoziyu memori, suratgari, haykaltaroshi, tarikhnigorivu adabiyot, tib(b), riyoziyotu handasa, madanobkuni, sokhtani dastgohhoi bofandagi, sokhtani plugho, charkharobaho, asbobhoi musiqi dar Bobiliston ba poyahoi balandi taraqqiyoti khud rasida budand. Dar sohai iqtisodi rushdi kishovarzi va tijorat, ba vujud omadani unsurhoi munosibati sarmoyadori az muhimtarin dastovardhoi in tamaddun ast.

Bo vujudi hamai in peshtoziho navi parastishi shumerho va bobiliyon bisyorkhudoi buda, bar poyai marosimhoi obshinagi bunyod shuda bud.[1] [2]

  • «Bobil» az du asli umumi dar zabonhoi somi: «bob» dar , «Il»Hudo= ba manii «dar yo darvozai Hudost».

[2]  Istoriya Vsemirnoy literaturi: Afanaseva V.K. « Literatura Drevnego Dvurechya».-S.86.

  • panteon ( yun.rap-hama+&eo8-khudo)- ba se mani ast: 1-mabadest dar Rumu YUnon bakhshida ba hama khudoyoni in kishvarho; 2 majmu yo anjumani hamai khudoyoni in yo on din; 3oromgohi shakhsiyathoi buzurg.

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