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Dinhoi tabii – ibtidoi

Dinhoi tabii ibtidoi zinai avvali zuhuri imkoni bilquvva (yo potensiali)- i zotii dindori va khudojuii inson ast. In qobiliyai bilquvva dar sirishtu fitrii inson guzoshta shudaast. Dar rui zamin gayr az inson dar hej yak mavjudi digare chunin imkonu qobiliyat mushohida nashudaast. Vale hamai insonho dar tamomi davrahoi tarikhi mutamaddini khud doroi yak nav dinu oine budaand. Hatto dar insonhoi az moqabli tarikh yo to ogozi tarikhi bashar, az asri sangi boqimonda dar qorahoi Avstraliya, Afriqo va jazirahori Gvineyai Nav dar asri HH olimon nishonahoi borizi dindoriro paydo kardaand. In khud isboti qaziyai dar bol zikr shuda ast.

ioann_propoveduetInson doroi se nav qobiliyati dini-Hudoshinosi ast. YAke qalbi az tariqi dil va ehsos, ki shuh,udi ast, digare aqli az rohi korburdi khirad va seyum naqli- az rohi vahyi ilohi va akhboru hadisi paygambaron. Dinhoi ibtidoi ba navi avvali marifatu shinokhti Hudo marifati qalbiyu hissi meboshnad. In nav marifatro, ki pesh az omadani paygambaron va vahy ast ulamoi din qabul dorand. Dar inson chunin qobiliyat imkonan dar sirishtu fitrati u guzoshta shudaast.

Dinhoi tabii majmue az parastishhoi khele pechidavu murakkabe budaand. Dar asl on nomhoe, ki mo baroi tashkhisi in dinho ba kor mebarem nomi yak dini muayyane nestand, balki istilohhoi ifodakunandai majmui parastishho, imonu bovariho va rasmu oinhoi ba ham nazdiki odamoni ibtidoi meboshand. Dinhoi ibtidoii tabii: jonvaravlodi (totemizm), ashyoparasti (fetishizm), sehru jodu (magiya), jonu ruhparasti (animizm), va gayra) to andozae khususiyati tamomi dinhoi ibtidoi meboshand. Dinhoi tabii hanuz ba manoi imruzai kalima, dini komil nestand, yane dar onho hanuz mafhumu ideyahoi khudo, okhirat, kitobhoi muqaddas, paygambaron va g. vujud nadorad. Bo vujudi in, dar onho unsurhoi asosii din bavariimonu etiqod va marosimhoi duovu ibodat joy dorand, ki badan ba in yo on shakl dar dinhoi kamolyofta vorid shudaand.

Totemizm (az kalimai hinduvoni amerikoi «o totem» – «avlodi vay»), yak nav etiqodu bovari va marosimhoi dinii odamoni ibtidoi ast, ki bar poyai bovari ba vujudi robitahoi avlodi va kheshovandi bayni inson va hayvonot, (hamchunin jonvaroni digar va rustaniho) ustuvor ast, ki onro metavon jonvaravlodi nomid. Odami ibtidoi, ki hanuz khudro az tabiat judo nakardaast, ba tabiat, hayvonioti atrofi khud bo didi nazdik ba kheshovandi nazar mekard, zero medid, ki onho az hama jihat bo vay shabohat va nazdiki dorand. Hamin ehsosi nazdiki va vobastagi bo hayvonot ohistaohista sababi paydoishi bovarihoi jonvaravloditotemisti dar zaminai etiqod ba vujudi robitai kheshovandiyu avlodi bayni in yo on avlod, qabila va yagon navi makhsusi hayvon yo rastani megardad. Minbad dar natijai afzudani shumori avlodho dar qabila, miqdor va navi totemaho niz meafzoyad.

Dar bayni odamoni ibtidoi nisbat ba totemahoi khud hissi ehtirom va parastish paydo meshavad. Onho totemai khudro muhofizat mekunand, namekushtand, magar tanho ba munosibati idho va tashrifoti muayyani mazhabi onhoro kushta, sipas mekhurand. Bovari doshtaand, ki chunin marosimhoi khurdani totema neruyu quvvati avlodro ziyod va payvastagii khuniyu avlodiro bo totema mustahkam mekunad.

Vobasta ba in yo on mintaqa totemaho khele gunogunand, az jumla: kenguru, kirmi abreshum, mor va qarogoz, zog, mushi sahroi, qurboqqa, khaffosh, uqobi shikori, sagi vahshi va gayra namunahoi totemahoi onho meboshand. Muvofiqi sunnathoi aborigenhoi janubi Avstraliya har fard totemai khudro az dasti modari khud mesitonidaand, chunki shajara yo nasabnomai avlodii har kasro az tariqi modarash nigoh medoshtaand. Avvalin guruhoi avlodii odamon guruhi totemavlodi budaand, ki odatan nomi totemai khudro girifta budand.

Qabilaho ba guruhhoi totemisti- fratiihoe, ki nikoh bayni afrodi on mamnu ast (yane ba guruhhoi ekzogomi[2] taqsim meshavand.

YAke az bovarihoi maruf va asosii dini bovari ba tanosukh (reinkarnasiya)[3], yane imkoniyati tabdil gardidani odam (alalkhusus murda) ba totema va baraks totema ba odam meboshad. Dar totema tabu[4] naqshi ziyode bozidaast.

[1] Mafhumi «dinhoi tabii» dar ilmi dinshinosi va falsafai din va farhang mafhumi oshno va qabulshuda meboshad, ki dar tabaqabandii dinho ziyod ba kor raftaast. Az rui barjastatrin khususiyatashon dinhoi ibtidoiro dinhoi tabii menomand. On barjastatarin khususiyati dinhoi ibtidoi tajassumi tabiat va quvvahoi tabiat meboshad. Az in ru mafhumi dinhoi tabiiro naboyad, misli baze ustodoni aqlaki falsafa dar donishgohhoi mo ba manii dini tabiat fahmid.

[2]  ekzogamiya ( yun. ekho – az berun datoz-nikoh) munosibati ijtimoie, ki dar jamiyati qabilavi – avlodi nikohi dokhiliavlodi (fratii)-ro mamnu karda bud (bar aksi on endogama).

[3] reinkornasiya(fran. getsagpayop- zuhur dar qolab, tani digar yo tanosukh ) -istilohest baroi bayoni etiqodu bovari ba zuhuri khudo va khudoyon dar shaklu qolabhoi gunogun: inson, hayovon va g-ra va hamchunin tavalludi chandkaratai inson dar qolabho va martabahoi gunoguni jamiyati va tabii.

[4] tabu (kal. polinezi) – istilohest, ki dar asosi bovarihoi mazhabii odamoni ibtidoi in yo on amal tahrim karda meshud va vayron kardani on gunohi azim buda , metavonist sababi ba yagon balo giriftor shudan boshad.

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