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FALSAFAI ISMOILIYA

Ismoiliya – yake az buzurgtarin firqai shia meboshad, ki dar asri VIII ba vujud omadaast. Firqai ismoiliya dar amal on zaminai ideologii harakati vasei siyosii mukholif ba khilofati Abbosiyon bud, ki badtar ba nahzati domanadori qarmatiya tabdil yoft. In shurishi gulomon va benavoyoni shahri va guruhi vasei tabaqoti miyona bud, ki dar Iroqu Huziston solhoi 868883 ba vuqu payvast. Rahbaroni on dar avval Abdullo ibniMaymunva badanHamdonQarmat budaand.

ismoiliho

Ismoiliyonro botini niz mekhonand, chun onho aqida dorand, ki “har zohire botin va har oyate tavil dorad”. Gayr az in, ismoiliyonro, chunonki SHahristoni takid karda, dar Iroq qa r m a t i ya va m a z d a k i ya, dar Huroson t a t i l i ya va m u l h i d i ya niz menomidaand. Vale onho khudashonro ismoiliya meonamon.

Dar tashakkuli falsafai ismoiliya tasiri goyahoi Aflotun (asri GU pesh a.m.) va navaflotuni (asri GGG m.) az tariqi nasroniya va Arastu dar falsafai tabiiyot (naturfilosofiya) mushohida karda meshavad. Muvofiqi talimoti ismoiliya mabdai yagonai havodisi mutaaddidi olam Hudo – ” al-Gaybut-Taolo” yo «Zoti Kull» dar holati oromi (yo sukut)-i abadist. Vay hej guna sifat (atribut) nadorad va baroi bashar nomuayyan va shinokhtanashavanda ast. Vay, chunon ki dinhoi yahudiya, nasroniya va islom talim medihand, kholiqu ofaridgori olam nest.

Hudo – Zoti Kull bo irodai azalii khud Javhar (substansiya)-i ejodgar A q l i K u l l ro judo mekunad. In avvalin suduri Hudost. Aqli Kull doroi hamai sifotest, ki musalmonon ba Alloh nisbat medihand va sifati asosii vay ilm ast. Ibodatro boyad ba u kard. Vay doroi nomhoi ziyod ast. Aqli Kull zinai poyonii sudur – Nafsi Kullro ejod kard. Vay noqis ast va sifati asosii vay hayot ast. Nafsi Kull bo ehsosi noqisii khud mayl ba kamol mekunad va az khud suduri tozae mekunad va Moddai Avval-Hayuloro judo mekunad. Az Hayulo Zamin, sayyoraho, sitoraho, makhluqoti zinda ba vujud meoyand. Paydoishi Inson az mayli Nafsi Kull ba kamol vobasta ast.

Hamin tavr ismoiliya haft zinai sudur (emanatsiya): Zoti Kull, Aqli Kull, Nafsi Kull, Hayulo, Makon, Zamon, va Insoni Komilro muayyan kardaast. Dar nazariyai ismoiliya bayni Aqli Kull va Bashar yo bayni olami akbar va olami asgar tanosub musovist. YAne inikosi Aqli Kull dar jahoni mahsus Insoni Komil meboshad. Hakim Nosiri Husrav farmuda: “Har chi dar olami Hissi mavjud ast, on asare ast, az on chi dar olami Uvlo /olami akbar/ mavjud ast.”

Dar talimoti ismoiliya shumorai haft maqomi khose dorad. Az jumla ba gayr az haft zinai sudur, haft davri nubuvvatro muqarrar kardaand.

Maruftarin namoyandagoni falsafai ismoiliya: Abuhotami Rozi, Muhammad ibni Ahmadi Nakhshabii Nasafi, Abulyaqubi Sijistoni, Hamid-ad-Din Kirmoni va Nosiri Husravi Qubodiyoni meboshand.

Maktabi «Ikhvoni Safo» (asri X), yake digar az maktabhoi falsafi yo anjumani falsafiyu mazhabii sirrie meboshad, ki azoyoni on garoishi ismoili doshtand va khudro «Ikhvon-us-Safo» meguftand. Az onho panjohu du risolai falsafi va yak risolai jome boqi monda. Maruftarin azoi hayati tahririyai on: Abusulaymoni Busti (mashhur ba Muqaddisi), Abulhasani Zinjoni, Abuahmadi Nahrjuri (nomi digarash-Mahrjoni), Avfi va Zayd ibni Rafoha budaand. In mutafakkiron avvalin shuda dar tadvini doiratulmaorifi falsafavu ilmii zamonashon kushidaand. Az in ru metavon onhoro avvalin ashobi doiratulmaorif dar falsafa, pesh az maorifparvaroni doiratulmaorifi fransavii asri 18 nomid.

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