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FATHI OSIYOI MIYONA

Pas az shikasti podshohi sosoni- YAzdigurdi III va firor va kushta shudani u ba Marv (654) solhoi 654 to 667 hujumhoi alohida ba Movarounnahr ogoz gardid. Solhoi 673-674 qoimmaqomi arab dar Huroson Ubaydulloh ibn Ziyod ba Movarounnahr hujum karda, Rometan va atrofi Bukhororo toroju kharob namud.

Nihoyat u ba muqobiliyati sakhti quvvahoi yakjoyai turkho va bukhoriyon duchor omada, ba sulh bastan majbur gardid.

700226d13b56ab5f2f0330a17a7ee485_xlLashkarkashii duyum ba Bukhoro soli 676 dar davrai qoimmaqomi Huroson Said ibni Usmon surat megirad. In dafa niz malikai Bukhoro ba ivazi dodani sesad hazor dirham va ba garavgon guzoshtani yak guruh ashrofzodagoni javoni Bukhoro bo arabho sozish mekunad. Badan in javonon Said ibni Usmonro dar qarorgohash kushta, khudro niz ba kushtan medihand.

Davrai avvali futuhoti arab az soli 644 to soli 704 tul mekashad. Dar in bayn mardumi bumii Osiyoi Miyona bo dastgirii turkon dar chandin muhoribaho qahramonona ba muqobili arob jangida vatani khudro difo kardand

Davrai duyumi futuhoti hadafnoki Osiyoi Miyona az davrai qoimmaqomi Huroson tain gardidani Qutayba ibni Muslim (s.705) ogoz meshavad. To in davra janghoi arob dar Osiyoi Miyona khususiyati parokandavu nomuntazam, beshtar khususiyati tokhtu tozro doshtand.

Qutayba soli 705 ba Balkh lashkar kashida, on mahalhoe, ki az itoati arabho sar kashida budand az nav ba itoat darovard.

Dar soli 706 hujumi qatii Qutayba ba khoki Movarounnahr ogoz meshavad. U pas az daryoi Omuro guzashtan ba shahri Paykend hujum ovard. Muhoribai Paykend dar tarikhi khalqi tojik buzurgtarin muhoribahoi qahramononavu hamosavii sugdiyon meboshad. Har chand dar in muhoriba sugdiyoni Paykend bo yorii hamsoyahoi khud bo shujoat jangida, sipohi Qutaybaro ba muhosira megirand, vale ba Qutayba muyassar meshavad, ki bo makr bayni hokimoni mahalli nifoq andozad va bo hamin sabab sugdiyon shikast mekhurand. Az rui baze digar sarchashmaho badi 10 mohi muhosira Paykend az tarafi arabho fath va gorat karda meshavad. Vale bo vujudi in bad az harakati Qutayba ba sui Bukhoro hanuz panj farsakh dur narafta aholii Paykend shurish bardoshta arabhoi dar on jo mondaro ba qatl rasonidaand. Qutayba dubora majbur meshavad, Paykendro ishgol kunad. In bor onro tamoman ba kharobazor mubaddal gardonida, hama mardonro kushta, zanu kudakonro ba gulomi mebarad.

Badi pakhshi shurish va katli ommi shurishgaroni Paykend Qutayba ba Bukhoro hujum karda, ba muqobiliyati sakhti sugdiyon dar mahalli Romitan duchor gardid. Dar in muhoribai shadid, ki turkoni bodiyanishin niz dar pahlui sugdiyon mardonavor mejangidand, qarib bud qushuni ba muhosira aftodai arab nobud va torumor shavad. Vale boz Qutayba rohi firebro pesh girifta bayni podshohi sugd va turkon nifoqu ikhtilof andokht. Dar natija in sabab shud, ki sugdiyon fursatro az dast dodand. CHun onho qati va sare amal nakardand, ba Qutayba quvvahoi ilovagi rasidand va u az muhosira badar meoyad. Vale chun dar in jang talafoti ziyode doda bud, az naqshai zabti Movarounnakhr dast kashida ba Marv barmegardad.

Arabho dar khej joy ba chunin muqovimati shadide, ki dar Movarounnahr didand duchor nashuda budand. Hulosa hujumi duyumi Qutayba soli 706 niz ba shikasti sakht ru ba ru meshavad. Harchand u in dafa Romitanro taskhir mekunad, dar jang baroi giriftani Bukhoro talafoti ziyode doda, hamon sol majbur meshavad, ki ba Huroson aqibnishini kunad. Muqovimati Bukhoriyon hokimi Iroq Hajjoj ibn YUsufro ba gazab meorad va u farmoni betakhir giriftani Bukhororo sodir mekunad.

Soli 709 boz Qutayba bo lashkari purshumor ba Bukhoro metozad. In dafa niz hokimi Bukhoro Vardankhudot sugdiyoni Samarqand va turkoni hamsoyai bodiyanishinro ba yori davat karda, dar in muhoribai khunin qahramoniho nishon medodand. Qutayba majbur meshavad baroi havasmand va sherdil kardani jangovaroni khud baroi har sari buridai bukhori sad dirham joiza muayyan kunad. Dar qarorgokhi u az sari jangovaroni Bukhoro manori buzurge ba vujud omad. Dar barobari in Qutayba boz ham makru hilaro ba kor burda, bayni sugdiyon va turkon nifoq andokhta, ikhshidi Sugd Tarkhunro majbur ba sulhbastan mekunad. Dar natijai in kushishi arob muvaffaq ba ishgoli Bukhoro meshavad. Qutayba bo ikhshidi Sugd Tarkhun qarordod basta, zimnan chand nafarro az aqraboi vay ba garavgon megirad.

Soli 710 Qutayba SHumon (vodii Hisor va Surkhandaryo)-i sarkashro az nav ba khun ogushta namuda,ba itoati khud medarorad.

Dar tarikhi khalqi tojik mudofiai Samarqand az hujumi arob yake az barjastatarin sahifai qahramoni va kornamoihoi tarikhii sugdiyon ast. Soli 711, hangome ki Qutayba dar fikri zabti Samarqand bud, shohi Horazm baroi furu nishondani isyoni barodarash az u yori mepursad. Badi bo yorii Qutayba furu nishondani shurish, shohi Horazm bo Qutayba ahdnoma imzo namuda, khokimiyati uro dar qalamravi davlati khud etirof kard.

Qutayba bad az dastyobi ba in muvaffaqiyati siyosi, soli 712 bo quvvai buzurgi nizomi, ki sipohi khorazmiyonu bukhoriyonro niz dar bar doshta, ba Samarqand hujum namud. Sokinoni shahr mardonavor bo shujoat qarib yak moh tamomi shahrro mudofia mekardand. Qutayba dar in jang gayr az quvvahoi harbii chandin hazor nafara, 300 manjanik ba kor burd. Nihoyat dar in muhoribai nobarobar bad az tamom shudani zakhirahoi harbi samarqandiyon majbur shudand ahdnomai Qutaybaro bo shartu sharoiti vaznin imzo kunand.

Bad az in hodisa solhoi 713-714 Qutayba ba Hujand, CHoch va Fargona yurish karda muvaffaq shud to sarhadi Qoshgar pesh ravad. Bo kushta shudani Qutayba marhilai duyumi istiloi Osiyoi Miyona ba poyon merasad.

Marhilai seyum zabtkorihoi arob dar Osiyoi Miyona marhilai pakhshi shurishu isyonhoi ziddi hokimiyati onho va zadu khurdho dar nohiyahoi janubii Tojikistoni imruzaro dar bar megirad.

Solhoi 720-722 shurishi sugdiyoni Samarqand va atrofi on rukh dod. Harchand in nahzati ziddi arabi shikast khurda boshad ham, mardum az muboriza dast nakashidand. Faqat soli 725 dar davrai hokimiyati qoimmaqomi arab Asad ibni Abdulloh zabti Hatlon ogoz meshavad. Dar khujumi avval Asad ibni Abdulloh sharmandavor shikast khurda ba Balkh aqibnishini mekunad. Naql ast,ki mardumi Balkh dar haqqi vay in surudi tamaskhuromezro mesurudaand.

Az Hutlon omdiya,
Ba ru taboh omadiya,
Obor boz omadiya,
Hashan nizor omadiya
.

Bad az in shikast tanho pas az dah sol (737) Asad ibni Abdulloh ba Hatlon az nav hujum mekunad. Bad az talafoti ziyode dar asari ishtibohi taktikii khatloniyon va hampaymoni onho khoqoni turk arob az torumorshavi najot yofta, in sarzaminro tasarruf mekunad. Vale hamzamon bo in voqea shurishhovu nahzathoi ziddiarabi makhz khamon solkho (736-737) dar Takhoriston va Sujd az nav avi megirad. Inchunin solhoi 738-739 shurishho dar Samarqand, CHoch, Farob ba vujud meomadand. In sarzamin yake az beetimodtarin gushai khilofat ba shumor meraft.

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