Home / Ilm / FIQHOI ISLOM: Hanafiya, Hanbali, Molikiya va SHofiya

FIQHOI ISLOM: Hanafiya, Hanbali, Molikiya va SHofiya

YAke az natijahoi tahavvuli minbadai islom paydoish va tashakkuli ilmhoi islomi bud. CHunon ki dar mavridi ilmhoi quroni guftem, ulumi islomi niz dar zaminai barkhurd bo tamaddunhoi digar va ikhtilofhoi mazhabivu firqavi ba vujud omada, doirai maorifi islomiro gustarish dodand. Az in ru ilmhoi islomi juzi maorifi islomi ba shumor meravand. Maorifi islomi dar majmu az ilmhoi sarchashmashinosii islomi: ilmhoi quroni, ilmi hadis va ilmhoi nazariyu falsafii islomi: fiqkh, kalom, mantiq, falsafai islomi, tasavvuf (irfon) va akhloq tashakkul yoftaast. Dar bayni ulamoi islom va faylasufoni gayriislomi dar mavridi taalluq doshtan yo nadoshtani baze ulumi yodshuda, chun mantiqu falsafa va yo hikmati amali- akhloq, ba islom ikhtilofi nazar mavjud ast.

Az jumlai ilmhoe, ki be bahs dar domani islom ba vujud omadand, ilmi f i q h, falsafai ilohii k a l o m va t a s a v v u f shuda metavonand. Harchand dar mavridi zaminahoi paydoishi tasavvuf niz bahsho ziyodand, vale az rui shaklu vositai bayon va hatto baze khususiyoti umdaash tasavvuf dar kishvarhoi islomi padidaest, ki onro judo az islom nametavon tasavvur kard.

FIQH ( az kal.arabii. faqaha-donish va yo fahmishi amiq) nomi ilmest, ki dar bobi ahkomi nazari va amalii shariati islom dar asosi manobe va dalelhoi tafsili bahs mekunad. In kalima dar Quron va hadishoi Payombar(s) mukarrar az jumla dar shakli ” tafaqqahkhu”, yane maonii oyot va farmudahoi quroniro amiq fahmu idrok namoed, ba kor raftaast. Fiqh ba istilohi imruza ba ilmi huquqshinosi nazdik ast, aniqtarash masoili huquqshinosi yak juzi fiqhro tashkil mekunand, vale fiqh doirai masoil va mavzuoti gustardatare nazar ba huquqshinosi dorad. Umuman, doirai mavzuot va masoili fiqhi on qadar vase va gunogun ast, ki onro nametavon bo yagon mahumu fanni imruza purra faro girift. Ilmi fiqh na tanho masalakhoi huquqiyu qazoi, balki yak zumra masoile, ki imruz ba doirai ilmi huquq dokhil nestand, chun ahkomi behdoshtivu poki (tahorat), ahkomi ibodat, masalahoi marbut ba munosibati maishi va odobu akhloqro niz dar bar megirad. Az in ru fiqh tankho ilmi nazariyu metodologii huquq va qonunguzoriyo tanho ilmi marosimoti mazhabi nest. Vale hamai ilmhoe,ki dar zeri chatri fiqh dokhil shudaand ba yak hadafi kulli nigaronida shudaand. On ham hidoyati insonho ba rohi rost (“sirotul-mustaqim”), ki ba sui saodat mebarad, saodati inson az nigohi meyori dini. Dar barobari ilmi fiqh, hamchun muqaddimai on, ilmi alohidae tashakkul yofta, ki onro u su l i f i qh menomand. Baze ulamo onro bo fiqh yak jo donistaand, baze judo meshumorand. Ilmi usuli fiqh nisbat ba fiqh hamchun munosibati mantiq ba falsafaro dorad. Hamchunon ki mantiq ilmi dasturi nisbat ba falsafa ast va ravishhoi sahehi muhokimaroni va qazovatro dar on nishon medihad, ilmi usuli fiqh “ilmi dasturi istinbot” yane ravishi sahehi berun kashidani hukm az manobei fiqhiro meomuzad. Usuli fiqh dar voqe az ilmhoi ibtikori va navpoi islom ast.

Istilohi manobei fiqh nisbat ba on manbaho yo sarchashmahoe meguyand, ki dar asosi nishondodhoi on hukme sodir meshavad. In manobe:

  • Kitobi khudo “Quron” (dar istilokhi fuqaho on mukhtasar “Ki t o b “nomida meshavad)
  • Sunnat, yane guftoru kirdor, rohnamoho va tarzi amal, va rohhoi halli in yo on masoil va tavzehoti matolib az tarafi Payombari islom(s).
  • Ijmo, hamrayi va muvofiqati ulamoi islom yo shakhsiyathoi obrumandi faqeh dar halli in yo on masala.
  • Qiyos (yo aql dar shia)- muhokima dar asosi muqoisai masalai mavridi hukm bo masalai monand ba on hukm shuda.

Qiyos kardan az usul (metodho)-i aqloni (ratsionali)-i istinboti normahoi huquqi meboshad. Az rui munosibat ba usuli aqloni fuqaho ba du guruhi asosi taqsim shudaand: a s h o b i hadis – onhoe, ki tanho ba ahodis takya dorand va Quronro niz ba vositai hadisho tafsir mekunand, digare a s h o b i r a y, ki ba istifoda az fikri mustaqil va muhokima va tahqiqi aqloni payravi mekunand. Gustarishi in usul ba etirofi i j t i h o d (az kalimai arabh. jahd-kushishu sayi ziyod) ovard, ki on yak navi faoliyati hukmbarorii faqeh ast, ki dar asosi istifoda az aql va usulu dalelho va donishi khud u ustuvor ast.

Ashobi ray usulhoi mukhtalifi berun ovardani normaho va ahkomi shari va huquqiro dar barobari qiyos chun: al-i s t e h s o n (muhokimai ba husni niyat) al-i s t i s l o h (muhokimai mustaqil baroi manfiati kor va hamchunin az- z a r a (muhokimai ijozat dodan yo nadodan), al-i s t i d l o l (khulosai istidloli – deduktivi) va nihoyat al- i s t i s h o b -(kategorii “prezumsiyai tagyirnayobandagii holat”)-ro kor kardaand. In hama kategoriyahoi ray meboshand, donishi onho va istifoda kardani onho baroi mujtahidu faqeh zarur ast.

Fiqkhi islomi (haddi aqal) ba haft mazhabi asosii fiqhi: chakhor sunni va se shii taqsim meshavad. Ammo pesh az bayoni bevositai in mazhabho boyad guft, ki sababi paydoishi onho ikhtilofho rui mavzui istifoda kardan yo nakardan dar hukm az sunnat, ijmo va aql (yo qiyos) budaast.

slide-37

Pas az vafoti Muhammad(s), ashobi u dar halli masoilu mushkiloti khud pesh az hama ba Quron va agar dar on paydo nakardand ba sunnat qavlu felu raftori Payombar(s) murojiat mekardand, vaqte, ki dar on niz bayoni ravshane paydo nakardand ru ba rayu ijtihod ovardand, yane kushidand nazdiktarin rohi hal, ki ba Quronu sunnat mutobiq boshad paydo kunand. Masalan, agar dar mavridi yagon khurok yo mevai madhushkunanda (musaqqar) hukm barovardan lozim boshad, vale hukmi ravshane dar borai harom yo halol budani on dar Quronu sunna naboshad, ba rayi khud onro qiyos mekardand bo khamr. CHun khamr musakkar- mastkunanda ast, harom ast, pas har chize, ki musakkar ast, ba harom hukm meshud. Hulosa ikhtilofho dar usuli istinbot- barovardani hukmi shariyu qonuni sababi paydoishi mazhabhoi fiqhi gardid, ki asositarini onho inhoyand.

1 -XANAFIYA, ki payravoni imom Abuhanifa Numon ibni Sobit (vaf.767m.\ 150.h.q.) meboshand. Numon pisari Sobit pisari Marzbon va kuniyai vay Abuhanifa ast. Asli u az Kobul- poytakhti Afgonistoni imruza meboshad. Boboyash Marzbon dar zamoni khilofati hazrati Umar islomro qabul karda, ba Kufa omada, dar on jo iqomat kardaast.

Dar ibtido Abuhanifa ba ilmi usuli din va yo kalom mashgul buda va bo bisyore az ulamoi zamonash bahsho kardaast. Naql mekunand ki baroi raddi intiqodho va shubhahoe, ki nisbat ba shariati islom joy dosht, 27 marotiba voridi Basra shuda, bo shakhsiyathoe chun Jahm ibni Safvon, bo mutazila va khavorij va rofiziyoni tundrav bahsu munoqisha kardaast. Vale badan bo sababe ba omuzishi fiqh mepardozad va ba halqai shogirdoni Hammodibni Abisulaymon mepayvandad. Abukhanifa to vafoti Hammod az shogirdoni mumtoz va vafodori u bud va bad az vafoti ustodash niz idomadihandai kori u va tolibi magfirati ilohi ba u dar namozu ibodat budaast.

Abuhanifa dar asari oshnoi bo ilmi kalom va bahsu munozira bo namoyandagoni gunoguni in maktab dar fanni jadal va munozira mahorati komil yofta bud. U in mahoratro dar ilmi fiqh ba kor andokht va bar khilofi ashobi hadis andesha va istidloloti aqliro dar fiqh va hdis ba kor burd va ray va qiyos va istehsonro voridi fiqh kard to on jo ki maktabi fiqhii Abuhanifa ba maktabi ray va qiyos mashhur ast.

Mazhabi Abuhanifa demokratitarin mazhabi islom ast, az on lihoz, ki u ilova ba qiyos, istehson va ray ba urf niz takya kardaast. Maqsad az istehson nazdi hanafiyon on ast,ki dar surati vujudi daleli qavitar yo ba amal muvofiqat nakardani hukm, on dar asosi istehson bekor karda meshavad. Ammo urf istifoda dar hukm az anana va sunnathoi makhalli meboshad. Bo sababi istifoda az ray, qiyos va istehsonu urf hanafiya az digar maktabhoi ahli sunnat ganitar gardid, in fiqhro fiqhi taqdiri (farzi) menomand. Payravoni hanafiya asosan dar Anatoliya, Balkan, Kavkazi SHimoli, Sohili Bahri Siyoh, Pavolje, Osiyoi Miyona, Afgoniston, Hinduston, Hitoy, Indoneziya va gayra zindagi mekunand.

2-HANBALIYA _, ki payravii imom Ahmad ibni Hanbali Marvazi (vaf.241 h.q.) meboshad. In mazhab dar asri IX nakhust hamchun harakati diniyu siyosi ba vujud omada, badan ba mazhabi fiqhivu aqidavi tashakkul yoftaast. Hanbaliya dar sharoiti buhroni amiqi manavi va ijtimoivu siyosi zuhur kard, ki mukholifati goyavii mutazila (aqlgaroyon) va mukholifoni on ba qullai balandi khud rasida bud. Dar in davra, ki zamoni khilofati Mamun bud, bar aksi Avrupo dar olami islom, na az tarafi namoyandagoni islomi rasmi, balki payravonu tarafdoroni firqai aqlgaroi va ozodandeshi-mutazila dast ba taqibi mukholifini khud zada, devoni taftishi aqoid (mehnat) zadand va dar in maraka asosguzori mazhabi hanbaliya Ahmad ibn Hanbal mavridi taqib qaror girift.

Ahmad ibni Hanbal az on muqallidoni sunnatgaroi ahli hadis bud, ki bo vujudi taqibu shikanja az aqidai khud nagasht. Hanbaliyon dar fiqh az rui Quron (- kitob), sunnat, fatvoi sahobahoi Payombari islom(s), qiyos, istehsob va zaroe hukm mekunand. Onho matni hadisro az fatvoi sahobagon afzaltar va muqaddam medonand, dar surati nabudani matni hadis ba fatvoi sahobaho murojiat menamoyand. Dar surati nabudani okhirin ba hadishoi zaif ru meorand, agar in okhirin ham naboshad az tariqi qiyos, ijmo ,masoleh va istehsob hukm mekunand. Istehsob hukmest, ki dar zamoni duvvum misli zamoni avval sobit ast.

Harchand hanbaliya hamchun mazhabi fiqhi dar asri H tashakkul yoft, adabiyotu osori hanbali badtar dar asri H1 ba vujud omadand. Maruftarini on “Kitobul- umda fi ahkom al-fiqh”-i Muvaffaq ad-Din ibni Kudomi (1146-1223) va “Siyosatush- shariya” asari allomai mashhuri hanbali Ibn Taymiya (asri 13) meboshand. Mazhabi hanbali bayni tabaqoti poyoni va miyonai Iroq, Huroson, Suriya va Hijoz tarikhan tasiri ziyode doshtaast va holo on mazhabi rasmii Arabistoni Saudi meboshad.

3 – MOLIKIYA , ki payravoni Imom Molik ibni Anas al-Asbahi (732­795) buda, dar nimjazirai Arabiston ba vujud omada,badan dar Misr, Afriqoi SHimoli va Andalus intishor meyobad. Dar fiqh sarchashmai asosii onho Kitobu Sunnat buda, dar yakjoyagi dar istiloh “An-n a s s” nomida meshavad. Fatvoi sahobaro hamchun juzi sunnat medonand. YAke az khususiyati in mazhab on ast, ki amali mardumi Madinaro dar ruzgori Imom Molik (saddai duvvumi hijri) niz hujjat meshumorand. Dalelashon in ast, ki meguyand: amali mardumi Madina dar on zamon mumkin nest, ki tibqi felu qavli Payombari islom(s) naboshad. Pas az inho ba qiyos, istehson, masolihi mursala murojiat mekunand. Istehson hukmi afzaliyatnok, ba mani afzal donistani istisloh ba qiyos ast, yane agar imkoniyati intikhob kardan vujud doshta boshad, dar surati shubha vujud doshtan, ba istisloh (yo masolihi mursala), yane muhokimai mustaqili aqloni ruy boyad ovard. Ba hamin usul usuli hukmi aqloni (ratsionalisti)-i a z -z a r o i- yane hukm oid ba ijozat va yo man kardan, ki maniash on ast,ki hamai on chize, ki dar okhiri okhiron ba harom meorad man boyad kard va har on chize, ki ba halol meorad ijozat boyad dod.

Usuli asosii fiqhi mazhabi molikiya dar kitobi Molik ibni Anas “al- Muvatta” va sharhu hoshiyahoi on doda shudaast. Tavzehu takmilhoi on “al- Mudavanna al-kabira” nom dorad. Az osori badii molikiya maruftarinash “Al- Qavonin al fiqhiya fi takhlisil- mazhabil-molikiya” meboshad, ki ba qalami Abulqosim ibni Jazzi (vaf.1340-1341) taalluq dorad. Inchunin metavon “Al- Mukhtasar”-i Saidi Halil (vaf. 1365-1366)-ro nom burd.

Dar holi hozir mazhabi molikiya dar Marokash ,Aljazoir, Tunis, Libiya, Kuvayt, Ba hrayn amal mekunad.

  1. SHOFIIYA, payravoni Imom Muhammad ibni Idris SHofei (767820) meboshand, ki dar fiqh tibqi Kitob, Sunnat, ijmo, guftaho (aqol)i sahoba va qiyos amal mekunand. Istehsonro qabul nadorand. Kitobu sunnatro dar yak radif musovi medonand. Ijmoi ashob va ulamoi din niz dar surati bo sanad budan dar asosi dalelhoi mutabar nazdi onho hujjat ast. Va ammo ijmoe, ki mukholifi Kitob va sunnat boshad maqbul nest. Nazdi onho ijtikhod ba manii qiyos ast.

Dar haqiqat mazhabi fiqhii shofei haddi mobayni va sokhta (talfiqi yo eklektiki)e az tariqai ahli qiyos va ahli hadis, ki zeri tasiri mazhabhoi hanafi va moliki tashakkul yofta, khususiyati onhoro qabul kardaast. Dar amal on yak mazhabe az usulhoi soddashudai hanafiyu moliki meboshad, az in ru khele zud dar Suriya, Iroq va Misr in du mazhabro tang karda, intishor yoft. Dar holi hozir vay dar Suriya, Lubnon Falastin va Urdun mazhabi asosi buda, dar Iroq, Pokiston, Hinduston, Malaziya, Indoneziya va Eronu YAman payravoni ziyod dorad.

Inhoyand chahor mazhabi fiqhii ahli sunnat va jamoat. CHunon ki gufta shud gayr az in boz se mazhabi fiqhii shia niz mavjud ast, ki az onho mo faqat nom mebarem, vale bahs dar mavridi khususiyati fiqhii onho az havsalai in kitob berun ast. In mazohib: z a y di ya, i s m o il i ya va j a f a r i ya meboshand. Zaydiya nomi khudro az Zayd ibni Ali barodari panjumi Imom Mukhammad al-Boqir (vaf. 732) girifta ast. Dar mavridi imomat nazari Zayd ibni Ali on bud, ki pas az Hasan har kadom nasli Ali metavonad imom boshad, ba sharte ki asliha ba dast dar roh islom muboriza kunad. Vay vujudi yakchand imomro dar yak vaqt dar kishvarhoi mukhtalif qabul dosht. Mazhabi ismoiliya chunon, ki badan dar bobi firqahoi mazhabiyu siyosi zikr khohad shud, az payravoni Ismoil ibni Jafar- pisari imomi shashumi ahli tashayu- Jafari SodiK (vaf. 765) meboshand. Jafariya boshad payravoni khudi imomi shashumi Iafari Sodiqand. In mazhabi fiqhi az tarafi qismati asosii shiayon-imomiyai isnoashari qabul shudaand va umuman mazhabi jafariya hamchun mazhabi panjumi fiqhii islom az tarafi ulamo mavridi qabul ast.

Nogufta namonad, ki gayr az in haft mazhabi fiqhi, ki yod kardem, boz mazhabhoi farii nomashhur va kamshumor chun: zohiriya, akhboriyun tabariya usuliyunva g-ra vujud dorand.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

7_resize

DINI BAHOIYA

Bahoiya yake az junbishhoi mazhabii nimai duyumi asri XIX dar Eron ast, ki badan khudro …