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FUTUHOTI ARAB VA GUSTARISHI ISLOM

Vaqte ki MuhammadPayombari islom(s) vafot kard, hanuz islom az hududi nimjazirai Arabiston berun nabaromada bud. Gustarishi islom dar ahdi “Hulafoi roshidin”- chor khalifi avval: Abubakr as-SiddiK (632-634) Umar ibn-Hattob (634-644), Usmon ibn Affon (644-656) va Ali ibn Abutolib (656-661), ba tavri vase ogoz gardida, dar ahdi khilofati Umaviyon asosan ba anjom rasid. Halifai avval Abubakr bad az Muhammad(s) poyai islomro dar nimjazirai Arabiston mustahkam namud. U ba muqobili payombartaroshon onhoe, ki bad az vafoti Muhammad(s) iddaoi payombari kardand chun: Tuleykh, al-Asvad, Museylima, Sajjoh va bo on qabilahoe, ki az islom ruy gardonidand (arridda) jangida, onhoro az nav taslim va domanai islomro gustarish dod.

Halifai soni Umar ba vositai sipohe, ki Holid ibn Valid qiyodat mekard sarnavishti mamoliki khovari nazdikro ba kulli digargun sokht. SHahri kuhanbunyodi Dimishq bad az shash moh muhosira dar soli 635 melodi zabt shud. Masehiyon az in zarba ba hush omada quvvai khudro safarbar namuda, baroi jubroni on shikast barkhostand. Holid bo ziraki ba mahalli munosibe aqib nishast va dar on jo bo sipohi murakkab az panjoh hazor nafar mardi jangi, ki Heraklus (qaysari Rumi SHarqi- Bizantiya) baroi darham shikastani u firistoda bud, ru ba ru shud. In muhoriba dar ruzi garmi guborolud, ki bodiyanishinoni arab bo in havo khu girifta budand, ba vuqu payvast va dar natija Holid rumiyonro sakht darham shikast va fathi qati nasibi u gardid. Nihoyat, bad az in muhoriba, sarosari khoki SHom (Suriya) to domanai kuhhoi Torus az tarafi arob fath karda shud. YAke az sababhoi muhimi muvaffaqiyati arob dar on bud, ki mardumi mahallii SHom az fishor va zulmi rumiyon, zadukhurdho va muhoribahoi bayni imperatorii bizanti va sosoni ba sutuh va tang omada budand va dar voqe muqovimate nishon nadodand.

Futuhot- kishvarkushoihoi arab harchand zeri shiorhoi gustarishi dini islom surat megirift, qabuli islom ijbori nabud va dar asl futuhot hadafi moddi va siyosi dosht, baroi gustarishi islom zaminasozi, yane az miyon bardoshtani moneahoi siyosi baroi qabuli islom bud. Dar masalai qabuli islom az tarafi sarlashkaroni arab zohiran, farmoishi Quron: “Lo ikroha fid-din” (yane, ” Dar din zuri darkor nest.”) rioya karda meshud. Az in lihoz, masalan dar paymonnomae, ki Holid ibni Valid ba aholii Dimishq peshnihod karda, gufta shudaast, ki agar u ba shah daroyad dar surati pardokhtani jizya jonu molashon dar amon, kalisoho, ibodatgohho va binohoi shahr az kharobi mahfuz khohand mond va onho ba juz khayr az arob chize nakhohand did. Hulosa, dar yak muddati kutoh (az soli 634- 642) arabho ba osoni Falastin, Suriya, qismati shimolii Baynannahrayn va Misrro zabt namudand. Dar avvali asri VIII arabho du seyumi qalamravi Vizantiyaro ishjol namuda, sarhadi khudro khelo vusat dodand.

Soli 633 ba Baynannahrayn-qalamravi Eron dokhil gardida, shahri Hira sobiK poytakhti Lakhmidiyonro ishjol kardand. Soli 634 arabkho dar “zadukhurdi nazdi kul” dar sohili Furot bayni shahri Hira va Madoin az tarafi sarlashkari eroni Rustam shikast doda meshavad. Vale du sol pas dar muhoribai Qodisiya poytakhti qismati jarbii imperiyai sosoni Madoin ba dasti musulmonon meguzarad. SHahr az tarafi arabho gorat gardida, qismate az aholii on qatl va qismati digar ba gulomi burda shud. Sarchashmaho ganimati az in shahr ba dast ovardai arabhoro ba 900 million dirkham barovard kardaand. Soli 637 tamomi Baynannahrayn (Iroqi imruza) zabt karda meshavad. Soli 640 arabho ba sui markazi Eron harakat karda, to soli 644 shahrhoi Hamadon, Qum, Koshon va Isfahonro zabt mekunand. Hamin tavr arabho az soli 640 to soli 652 taqriban tamomi Eronro zabt karda, soli 651 ba saltanati sosoni khotima guzoshtand. Harchand arob dar in marhila tavonistand to daryoi Omu rasand, ammo dar dokhili Eron eroniyon muqovimati shadid mekardand va futuhoti arob ba kundi pesh meraft, chunki mardumi oriyonii on kishvar ba dini zardushtii khud vafodor budand va ba suhulat taslim nameshudand. In ast, ki jangho bo eroniyon duvozdah sol tul kashid.

Davrai duvvumi zabtkorii buzurgi arob, yo khud tavsiai ba istiloh “dor-ul- islom” ba davrai khilofati umaviyon (661-750) rost omad. Hamin tavr arabho dar shimolu sharq to pushti kuhhoi Himolay va to sarhadi CHin, Turkiston va Muguliston az sui digar dar janub to Hinduston dar garb to Isponiyo va umqi Afriqo pesh raftand.

Qabuli islom dar sarzaminhoi ishgolgardida, az jumla dar Osiyoi Miyona, ba kundi va mushkili pesh meraft. Dar marhilai avval khudi fotehon nachandon kushidand, ki khalqhoi zabtgardida dini islomro qabul kunand. Ba nazar chunin merasad, ki qabuli islom nachandon ba onho foida dosht, chunki musulmonon az andozi sarona “jizya” ozod karda meshudand. Az in ru dar tamomi qalamravi khilofati islom namoyandagoni dinhoi digar: nasroniyon, yakhudiyon, zardushtiyon va digaron ba sharti rioyai mahdudiyathoi juzii muayyan, bo pardokhti jizya bemalol zindagi mekardand. In guna odamonro z i m m i va shakhsoni gayriarab, ki islomro qabul kardaand m a v l o menomidand. Mavlo boyad zeri himoyai yake az namoyandai yagon qabilai arab qaror megirift. Badan, islom dar yak qator kishvarhoi Osiyo va Afriqoi Janubi ba vositai savdogaronu tojiron va inchunin muballigoni islom intishor meebad. Masalan, namunai on intishori islom dar kishvar

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