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Faoliyati innovatsioni va khususiyati on

Faoliyati ejodivu istehsolii insonro, ki ba tashkil va tatbiqi innovatsioniho ravona shudaast, az on sabab «faoliyati innovatsioni» menomidagi shudaand, ki tatbiqi on ba ilm va sarmoyaguzori kharojoti muayyanro talab menamoyand.

Mafhumi «faoliyati innovatsioni» ham ba manoi mahdud va ham ba manoi vase manidod karda meshavad.

Ba manoi mahdudash faoliyati innovatsioni – faoliyatest, ki on ba istifodai natijahoi tadqiqoti ilmi bo maqsadi giriftani mahsuloti nav, inchunin rohhoi istehsoli on yo takmili khizmatrasonii ijtimoi nigaronida shudaast.

Ba manoi vaseash faoliyati innovatsioni – in jarayoni tashkilshavi, azkhudkuni va taqsimoti mahsuloti nav va komilan takmil dodashuda, khizmatrasoniho, takhnologiyaho, ashyoi khom va mavodho, usulhoi tashkili istehsolot va idorai on meboshad.

Faoliyati innovatsioni dar Jumhurii Tojikiston muvofiki qonun «Dar borai faoliyati innovatsioni» saheh sharh doda shudaast. Faoliyati innovatsioni-faoliyate, ki ba tahiya va jori namudani innovatsiya (natijai nav yo takmildodashudai tadqiqoti ilmi, korhoi tajribaviyu konstruktori yo digar dastovardhoi ilmiyu tekhniki) aloqamand buda, baroi rasonidani on to bozor dar shakli nav yo takmildodashudai mahsulot, khizmatrasoni, usuli istehsolot yo digar natijai samaranoki jamiyati ravona karda shudaast. Dar moddai 5- umi qonuni mazkur, namudhoi faoliyati innovatsioni chunin nishon doda shudaast:

  • jori namudani goyaho va dastovardhoi navi ilmi dar sokhtori idorakunii davlati;
  • ijro va khizmatrasonii korhoi ilmiyu tadqiqoti, loihavi, kashshofi, tajribaviyu konstruktori va tekhnologi, baroi ba dast ovardani mahsuloti nav yo takmildodashuda, usuli nav yo takmildodashudai koru khizmatrasoniho, jarayoni tekhnologii nav yo takmildodashudae, ki dar gardishi iqtisodi tadbiq megardand, ravona shudaand;
  • tashkili bozori furushi mahsulot (koru khizmatrasoniho)-i innovatsioni;
  • aznavjihozonii tekhnologi va omodasozii istehsolot;
  • guzaronidani ozmoishho bo maqsadi sertifikatsiyakunoni va standartonii jarayonhoi navi tekhnologi, mahsulot (koru khizmatrasoniho);
  • istehsoli mahsulot (koru khizmatrasoniho)-i nav yo takmildodashuda va yo mavridi istifoda qaror dodani tekhnologiyai nav yo takmildodashuda dar marhilai ibtidoi to anjomi muhlati merii talofiyati loihai innovatsioni;
  • tashkil va rushdi infrasokhtori innovatsioni;
  • targibi natijahoi faoliyati innovatsioni va pahn namudani innovatsiya;
  • Hifz kardan, voguzoshtan va ba dast ovardani huquq ba obekthoi molikiyati zehni (az jumla ba dastovardhoi ilmi, ilmii tekhniki va tekhnologie, ki purra oshkor nagardidaand) bo maqsadi azkhudkuni va tadbiqi onho;
  • Digar namudhoi faoliyat, ki qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston man nakardaast. 1

Faoliyati innovatsioni inhoro dar bar megirad:

  • faoliyati ilmi,
  • faoliyat oid ba tajassumyobii korho dar mahsulot, tekhnologiyaho.

Az tavsifnomai progressi ilmi-tekhniki va faoliyati innovatsioni ravshan ast, ki agar progressi ilmi-tekhnikiro hamchun ravand barrasi kunem, pas faoliyati innovatsioni – in yake az qismhoi tarkibii on ast.

Faoliyati innovatsioni va progressi ilmi-tekhniki du shokha dorand:

  • yakum, takmili jarayoni tekhnologii taminkunandai sarfai zakhirahoi moddiyu mehnati;
  • duyum, tashkili shaklhoi navi mahsuloti taminkunandai behdoshti sharoiti zindagii shahrvandon.

Hususiyati muhimi faoliyati innovatsioni, davri (sikli) innovatsioni meboshad, ki tahti on davri tashkilshavi, pahnshavi, istifodai innovatsioniho, inchunin davri amalshiavii onho fahmida meshavad.

Davrai tatbiqi namudhoi judogonai innovatsiyaho az anjom to ogozi istifodai voqeii onho chunin bud:

  • Suratgiri – 113 sol (s. 1727-1830);
  • Telefon – 56 sol (s. 1820-1876);
  • Radio – 35 sol (s. 1867-1902);
  • Rador – 10-15 sol (s. 1925-1946);
  • Televizion – 12 sol (s. 1922-1934);
  • Lazer – 5 sol (s. 1956-1961);
  • Naqshahoi integrali 3 sol (s. 1958-1961).

Davri (sikli) purrai innovatsioni paydarpayii zerini faoliyati innovatsioniro dar bar megirad:

  • tadqiqoti ilmii bunyodi;
  • tadqiqoti amali;
  • korhoi tekhniki (ozmoishiyu loihakashi, tekhnologi, korhoi loihaviyu tashkili);
  • istehsoloti tajribavi;
  • azkhudkunii ibtidoii navovariho;
  • pahn shudani innovatsiyaho;
  • istifodai tekhnikai nav, usulhoi tashkil va idora.

Sohai innovatsioni nizomi munosibathoi baynihamdigarii innovatsiyaho, sarmoyaguzoron, tashkilotho- molistehsolkunandagoni mahsuloti (khizmatrasonihoi) raqobatpazir, muhiti atrof va infrasokhtori taraqqikardai nizomi – innovatsiyaho, tashkilot (shirkat) va muhiti atrof, quvvahoi harakatdihandai rushdi iqtisodi bo sharti robitahoi baynihamdigarii onho meboshand. Tanosubi in se nizom imkoniyat va zarurati robitai baraksro nishon medihad (ba jadvali 1 nigared).

nizomi-inova

Nizomi «tashkilot» metavonad dar chunin sohai tekhnika faoliyat namoyad, ki azkhudkunii on tanho bo dastgirii davlat imkonpazir ast.

Sarmoyai insoni – omili muhimi tatbiqi innovatsiya mahsub meshavad. Kasholkori dar jori kardani tekhnologiyahoi navro hamchun muvofiqati nomatlubi quvvai kori ba sharoiti tagyiryobanda manidod kardan mumkin ast. Hamin tariq, kasri bahodihi ba miyon meoyad. Dar in mavrid davlat masulu javobgar ast, zero u tahsiloti umumii aholiro boyad tamin namoyad.

Mablagguzori ba azkhudkunii tekhnologiyahoi nav va istehsoli mahsuloti nav kori khavfnok ast.

Nizomi «muhiti zist» dar zeri nazorati makhsusi davlat qaror doshta, vay sharoiti namunavii khojagidoriro muayyan mesozad.

Ba sohai zersokhtori khojagidori – sohahoi naqliyot, aloqa, energetika va hifzi tabiat dokhil meshavand. Dar barobari raqobati ananavi dar doirai istehsolot, inchunin vohidi navi raqobat – musobiqa az rui vaqtro niz ba inobat boyad girift, yane,

  1. – munosibati musbat ba rushdi bozori furush;
  2. – faolnokii makhsus dar bakhshi marketing.
  3. – davrai tahlili tijoratii goyaho, ki dar on tadqiqoti marketingi guzaronida shuda, andozai foida az furushi mahsuloti mazkur muayyan karda meshavad;
  4. korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va ozmoishiyu konstruktori, davrai amaligardoni;
  5. davrai tahiyasozii namudi ibtidoii naqshai furushu targibot ozmoishi on dar bozor;
  6. dar in jo mahsulot dar kadom yak sigmenti bozor az sanjish guzashta, bad baroi furush dar bozori umumi omoda karda meshavad
  7. – navgoni, yane mahsuloti komilan tayyor baroi furush dar bozor;
  8.  nihoyat, in lahzaest, ki mahsulot goyai navro ba miyon meorad, bozor boshad, dar navbati khud onro az rui furush talab mekunad.- sanjishi bozori, ki on ba mavjud budani imkoni muvaffaqiyat (nokomi) dar bozor, durnamo, hajmi furushi mol, sathi foida va  kharojot baho medihad va inchunin mutobiqatsozii khususiyathoi alohidai istemolii molro ba talaboti istemolkunanda muayyan menamoyad;

Har yak innovatsiya dar jarayoni tatbiq bisyor marhilahoro az sar meguzaronad, ki mohiyati onho bo khususiyati jarayoni innovatsioni, shaklu usuli menejmenti tashkilothoe, ki dar onho innovatsiyaho tatbiq meshavand, sharoiti bozor va gayra muayyan megardand.

Tadbirhoi zerin, ki jarayoni tatbiqi innovatsiyahoro tamin mekunand, inhoyand:

    • ba vujud omadani goyai ilmiyu tekhniki;
    • inkishof va takmilu tahiyasozii goyai ilmiyu tekhniki;
    • kor karda baromadani hamshabeh (prototip);
    • azkhudkunii ozmoishi;
    • istehsol bahri az sanjish guzashtan dar bozor;
    • istehsoli ommavi, furush.

Jarayoni qabuli innovatsiyaho az panj marhila iborat ast:

    • dark;
    • shavqmandsozi;
    • bahodihi;
    • sanjish;
    • qabul.

    Hamin tariq, muhiti tatbiqi innovatsiya va faroham ovardani sharoiti mufidi faoliyati khojagidori az holati nazariyavii zerin bar meoyad:

  • qabuli innovatsiya darku fahmishi gusturdai in jarayon yo mahsulotro hatman peshbini menamoyad;
  • darku fahmishi on metavonad, ki ba vositai istifodai konsepsiyai javobgu ba dast ovarda shavad;
  • ehtimoliyati istifodai infirodii innovatsiyaho az on vobasta ast, ki sohibkori mazkur konsepsiyai khudro dar in jarayon istifoda karda metavonad;
  • shakhsi ba pahnkunii on mashgulbuda hangomi shinosoii nakhustin bo innovatsiya hamai konsepsiyahoi zarurii ba on vobastaro doshtanash chandon lozim nest, tanho on ba azkhudkunii donishho va mafhumhoi ba innovatsiya vobastabuda boyad musoidat namoyad;
  • surati istifodai innovatsiya az on vobastaast, ki to kadom daraja hamai kormandonu menejeron konsepsiyai zaruriro az khud mekunad;
  • nomutasili dar istifodai innovatsiya dar natijai istifodai juzi va dodani bahoi nopurra dar darki on ba amal meoyad;
  • kabuli innovatsiya inchunin az nizomi arzishhoi insonii mushakhkhas niz vobasta meboshad.

Ilova bar in, ba gayr az narkhi mahsulot, inchunin «donista giriftani khohishi mizojon», khizmatrasoniho, bakhisobgirii baho badi furush, khohishhoi makhsusi mizojon, peshnihodi namudhoi beshtari mahsulot ahamiyati ziyod dorand.

Innovatsiya hamchun natijai nihoii faoliyati innovatsioni davrai hayoti mahsulotro kutoh mesozad. Ba iborai digar, bo nazardoshti ilmu tekhnika zud-zud molhoi khushsifatu zamonavi va simoyashon nazarras istehsol meshavand, ki onho mahsuloti ba khud monandro az har jihat az bozor tang karda mebarorand va doirai muomilotashro mahdud mesozand.

YAkbora past raftani samaranokii mablagguzori hangomi tanazzuli iqtisodi menejeroni tashkilotu korkhonahoro, shirkathoro majbur mesozad, ki manbahoi navi sarmoyaguzoriro justuju namoyand. 28

Murattabii peshrafti tekhnikiro takid karda, ba farziyai nomutasilii on takya namuda, muhaqiqon qayd mekunand, ki tagyiroti gustarish, voridshaviyu khorijshavii innovatsiyahoi zaminavi tagyirotro dar iqtisodiyot muayyan menamoyand.

Ba dast ovardani natijai nihoii faoliyati innovatsioni du marhila yo khud du davra dorad, ki inhoyand:

  1. Ogoz, zerdavrai giriftani malumot dar borai innovatsiyaho; tarzi az tarafi shirkat giriftani malumot dar borai innovatsiyaho, zerdavrai tashakkuli munosibatho ba innovatsiya va asoshoi qabuli qarorho.
  2. Tatbiq namudan, zerdavrai tatbiqi ibtidoi (dar asosi sanjishi on ki oyo on arzishe dorad yo ne), zerdavrai tatbiqi darozmuhlat (badi sanjishi on avval dar yake az bakhshho va bazan dar tamomi istehsolot tavlid kardani mahsulot). Ba in davra inchunin inho dokhil meshavand:
  • davrai tavlidi mahsuloti nav;
  • arzi vujud namudani on dar bozor;
  • goya (tashakkuli portfeli goyaho);
  • bahoi tekhnikiyu iqtisodii goyaho (ikhtiroot);

Solhoi 50-umi asri XX dar barobari ba miyon omadani tanazzuli innovatsiya istifoda kardan az sohae, ki dar on navovari paydo shudaast, ba sohai digar kuchonidani on bo tagyirotu takmildihii khosi in soha ovarda merasonid.

Tadqiqoti sababhoi muvaffaqiyat va nokomihoi innovatsiyahoi ilmiyu tekhniki yak qator omilhoi takrorshavandaro oshkor sokht. Dar bayni onho omilhoi zerin muhimtar donista meshavand:

  1. Ruy ovardan ba bozor;
  2. Mutobiqat ba maqsadhoi tashkilot;
  3. Nizomi samarabakhshi intikhob va bahodihii loihaho;
  4. Idorai samarabakhshi loihakho va qarordodho;
  5. Manbai goyai ejodi;
  6. Infirodi budan va masuliyati dastajami doshtan.

Dar ayni zamon, innovatsiya nisbat ba davrahoi peshin khele zudtar pahn meshavad. Sababhoi on, pesh az hama, dar daryofti rohhoi nisbatan takmilyoftai aloqa va usulhoi aniqi muayyansozii muhlathoi ivaz namudani tajhizoti kuhna meboshad.

Iqtisodchii amrikoi J. Hlavacheka, ki natijai 21 innovatsiyahoro ba tavri hamajoniba omukhtaast, sababhoi mamuli tatbiqi bemuvaffaqonai onhoro chunin muayyan kardaast,

  1. mahdudiyati bozor baroi tavlidi mahsulot;
  2. tashkili badi furush;
  3. bahisobgirii nokifoyai ehtiyojoti bozor.

Dar navbati khud tadqiqotchiyoni digar sababhoi zerini nokomii tatbiqi innovatsiyahoro takid mesozand:

  1. purra ba inobat nagiriftani raqobati bozor;
  2. az budash beshtar donistani shumorai kharidoroni iqtidornok;
  3. baland bardoshtani narkhi mahsuloti istehsolshuda;
  4. norasoihoi tekhnikii mahsuloti istehsolshuda.

Tadqiqotho nishon medihand, ki qarib 80 foizi innovatsiyahoi ilmiyu tekhniki hanuz dar marhilai bavujudoivu amalisozii goyaho, boz 10 foizashon-dar marhilai tahiyai hamshabehho (prototip) va qarib 7-8- foiz dar marhilahoi boqimonda khotima meyoband.

Dar IMA nisfi har kadome az 100 adadi mahsuloti navi ba bozor barovardashuda az nigohi tijorati kharob meshavad, dar Kanada boshad, tanho 6 foizi innovatsiyaho «nihoyat bomuvaffaqiyat» donista shudaandu khalos.

Dar kishvarhoi doroi iqtisodiyoti davrai guzarish jarayonhoi innovatsioni dar davrai barqarorshavi qaror dorand, dar hole, ki dar kishvarhoi taraqqikarda sukhan dar borai samaranokii balandi in jarayonho meravad. Dar barobari in, davlat binobar sababi nokifoya budani mablaghoi bujeti, tanho davrai tadqiqothoi bunyodiro mablagguzori karda, sarmoyaguzorii davrahoi boqimondai in jarayonro ba zimmai korkhonavu muassisaho voguzor menamoyad.

Nomutanosibii mablagguzorii har kadome az davrahoi jarayoni innovatsioni ba rushdi bomuvaffaqiyati on mone meshavad. Dar davrai yakumi jarayoni innovatsioni tadqiqothoi bunyodi mohiyati umumii innovatsioniro purra kushoda nametavonand. Taqdiri vay badi davrahoi korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori, tahiyai hamshabehhoe (prototiphoe), ki mablagguzorihoi ziyodro talab menamoyand, hal karda meshavand.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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