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HAYOTI JAMIYATI-SIYOSI DAR SOLHOI 50-60UM

CHangi duyumi chakhon bo tashabbusi quvvakhoi irtichoii baynalmillali, ki orzui khukmroni chakhon shudanro doshtand, 1-sentyabri soli 1939 sar shud. In chang dar tarikhi insoniyat falokati buzurgtarin ba khisob meravad. Badbakhtie, ki ba sari mardumi chakhon ovard, az chenaki umumi berun mebaroyand. In chang pesh az khama zadukhurdi du ideologiya: ideologiyai kommunisti va burjuazi bud, ki asosi manavii du davlati buzurgi chakhon – Ittikhodi SHuravi va Germaniyai fashistiro tashkil mekard.
Fashizm, az kalimai itolyavi-ittikhod girifta shuda, khamchun ideologiyai millatgaroi va insonbadbini dar solkhoi 20-umi karni guzashta dar yak qator malakatkhoi Avrupo ba vuchud omad.
Solkhoi 30-um fashizm dar Italiya, Olmon, Portugaliya, Ispaniya va mamlakatkhoi digari Avrupoi SHarki va Markazi barkaror shud. Makhsusan badi ba sari davlati Olmon baromadani dokhi fashistoni Gitler soli 1933 chakhonro ba girdobi chang nazdik kard.
Gitler (Hitler) nomi asliash SHiklgruber Adolf 20- apreli soli 1889 dar muzofoti Braunai Avstriya ba dunyo omadaast. u dar davrai changi yakumi chakhon dar urdui Olmon bo rutbai efreytor khizmat kard. Az soli 1919 ba tarafi sotsialistoni milli mayl karda, yake az asosguzoroni khizbi fashisti dar Olmon bud. Soli 1920 rokhbariyati khizbi milli – sotsialisti korgarii Olmonro ba dast darovard. 9-umi noyabri soli 1933 raisi Olmon P.Gidenburg Gitlerro reykhkansler tayin namud. Bad vafoti P. Gidenburg Gitler tamomi khokimiyatro ba dast girifta, Olmonro ba lageri yagonai kharbi tabdil dod. Tamomi nakshakhoi insonbadbinonai A.Gitler dar kitobi u «Mayn kampf» (Muborizai man), ki soli 1924 nashr shuda bud, ifoda yoftaast. In kitob asosi barnomai khizbi milli – sotsialistoni Olmonro tashkil medod. Dar on komilan az bayn burdani najodi past (ba qavli onho ba ayr az nemisho) ravshanu hama tarafa tasvir yofta bud.
Dar bayni fashistoni Olmon va Italiya ittihodi harbi basta shud, ki dertar millatgaroyoni CHopon niz ba on dokhil shudand.
Baroi ba sari kudrat omadani fashiston dar Olmon chi sabab gasht?. SHikast dar changi yakumi chahon, barham khurdani imperiyai Vismeri bukhroni siyosiyu iktisodi omilhoi asosi budand, ki dar Olmon ba digargun shudani mukhiti manavi ovarda rasondand. Hizbi milli – sotsialisti bo rohbarii Gitler ba khissi millii khalki nemis takya karda dar bayni aholii khissiyoti niqortalabi meburdand.
Dar Olmon na tanho osori mutafakkironi bashardustro suzonda nobud kardand, balki sadho hazoron nafarro bo bahonai oriyoi nabudanash ba lagerhoi konsentrasioni choygir karda nobud sokhtand. Ba tavri ommavi nobud namudani yakhudiyon siyosati insonbadbinonai Gitlerro nishon medihad. Dar Olmon tamomi khizbhoi siyosie, ki nashi fashistonro namepaziruftand, takib va chazo doda meshudand.
Havfi changi chahon toraft nazdik meshud, lekin mavqei davlathoi buzurg dar in davra yakkhela nabud.
Davlati SHuravi khavfi changro dar Garb az Olmoni fashisti va dar SHarq az YAponiyai millatparasti medid. Lekin yak chiz aniq nabud, ki kadome az in davlatho changro sar mekunand.
Mamlakathoi Avrupo ba kuvvai harbii Ittihodi SHuravi bovarii komil nadoshtand. Az in sabab, guftushunidi khudro bo mamlakati SHuravi bo har bahona kashol doda, bisyor masalahoro pinkhoni bo Gitler hal mekardand.
11-avgusti soli 1939 badi tayyorihoi ziyod bayni Ittihodi SHuravi va vakiloni anglo-fransuzi dar masalai bartaraf namudani khavfi chang dar Avrupo guftushunid sar shud. Ammo onho yagon naticha nadodand.
Az in sabab 12-avgust Ittihodi SHuravi dar borai sar kardani guftushunid bo Olmon tayyor budani khudro ibroz namud. Bo Olmon va namoyandagoni anglo-fransavi dar yak vakt guftushunid menamudand. Nihoyat 20-avgusti soli 1939 Gitler ba I. Stalin maktub firistoda dar borai tayyor budan ba guftushunid khabar dod.
23-avgust Ittihodi SHuravi (Molotov bo Ribentron) va Olmon dar borai ba yakdigar huchumnakardan ba mukhlati 10- sol shartnoma imzo kardand. Dar shartnoma doir ba Polsha karordodi makhfi qabul karda shud.
Rohbariyati Ittihodi SHuravi bovarii komil dosht, ki shartnomai bo Olmon imzo shuda muvaqqati meboshad, va az in ru baroi bekhatarii sarhadho choraho meandeshidand. 17- sentyabri soli 1939 kismhoi Artishi Surkh ba Ukrainai Garbi va Beklorussiyai Garbi dokhil shuda, badi chang in zaminho ba Ukraina va Belorussiya hamroh karda shudand.
Dar yak vakt kuvvahoi yakchoyai Muguliston va SHuravi dar SHarki Dur dar sohilhoi daryoi Halkhin – Gol ba muqobili YAponiya amaliyot meburdand. In amaliyot ba rafti minbadai chang dar kismi SHarki tasiri kalon rasond. Niyathoi tachovuzkoronai YAponiya barbod doda shud.
Okhirhoi noyabri soli 1939 amaliyoti harbii SHuravi va Finlandiya sar shud. Davlati SHuravi niyat dosht, ki bo rohi diplomati masalahoi sarhadiro bo Finlandiya halu fasl namoyad. Ba Finlandiya taklif karda shud, ki sarhadi davlatiro az Leningrad ba masofai 32 km durtar barad. Dar ivazi in ba Finlandiya dar gardanai Koreliya chandin marotiba ziyodtar territoriya peshnihod karda shud. Inchunin davlati shuravi nimchazirai Hanko va bandari Petsamoro ba ichora dodan peshnihod kard. Finlandiya in taklifro qabul nakard.
Qushunhoi SHuravi bo dushvori va talafoti kalon (126 875 nafar kushta va yarador shudand) khati mudofiavii Manergeymro rakhana kardand. Finho dar in muhoriba 48273 nafar talaf dodand. Avvalhoi mohi fevrali soli 1940 Finlandiya baroi bastani sulkhnma rozi shud. Sarhadi navi bayni davlatii Ittihodi SHuravi va Finlandiya muayyan gardid. Mokhi iyuni soli 1940 Ittifoki SHuravi ba Ruminiya bargardonda sarzamini Besarabiya va Bukovinai SHimoliro peshnihod kard. (In zaminho dar asosi shartnomai Brest soli 1918 az Rusiya girifta shudand). Mokhi avgusti soli 1940 Baksarabiya ba Moldaviya hamroh karda shud va Bukovinai SHimoli ba Ukraina hamroh karda shudand.
Mokhdoi iyun-iyuli soli 1940 dar davlathoi nazdi Baltika, Estoniya, Latviya va Litva vaziyati dushvori siyosi ba amal omad. Muvofiki shartnomai imzo shudai mokhi sentyabri soli 1939 boyad kismhoi harbii shuravi ba khoki in davlatho vorid meshudand.
Dar mokhdoi iyun-iyuli soli 1940 dar davlathoi nazdi Baltika harakati inqilobi sar shud. 21-iyuli soli 1940 dar chumkhuriho Litva Latviya va Estoniya Hokimiyati SHuravi barpo karda shuda onho ba hayati Ittihodi SHuravi hamroh karda shudand.
Olmoni fashisti az betarafii mamlakathoi Avrupo istifoda burda, 1-sentyabri soli 1939 ba Polsha khuchum kard. Ruzi digar Angliya machbur shud, ki ba Germaniya chang elon kunad. Hamin tariq changi duyumi chahon dar Avrupo sar shud. Az mokhi avgusti soli 1939 to soli 1940 Olmon davlathoi Polsha, CHekhoslovakiya, Ruminiya, Vengriyaro zabt namuda ba sarhadhoi Ittihodi SHuravi nazdik shud.
Nihoyat 22-iyuni soli 1941 Olmoni fashisti nogahon ba Ittihodi SHuravi az se samti asosi (SHimol, Markaz va CHanub) akhdshikanona hujum namud.
Hangomi murofiai sudi Baynalkhalki az boloi sarkardagoni fashistii Olmon dar sh. Nyurnberg malum gardid, ki hanuz dar solhoi 30-yum Gitler nakshai bo Ittihodi SHuravi sar kardani changro kashida budaast.
Muvofiki on («nashi Barbarossa») tavassuti changi «Barkoso» meboist shunhoi fashisti to farorasii
zimiston ba Ural merasidand.
To ba Ittihodi SHuravi sar kardani chang, Olmon dar zarfi 2-solai chang dar Avrupo 11-mamolikro tasarruf namud, ki onkho 142 mln.km.kv. marz doshtand.
Dar ruzhoi avvali chang fashiston az khuchi nogakhoni va bartarii kharbi- tekhniki istifoda burda, takriban 50% tekhnikai changi, anborkhoi suzishvori va ozukavoriro nestu nobud sokhtand. CHang 1418 shabonaruz idoma yoft.
Bo bisyor sababkhoi obektivi va subektivi artishi Surkh changkunon akibnishini mekardand. Ba in nigokh nakarda, artishi SHuravi pay dar pay kuvvakhoi zarbazani fashistonro az qator mebarovardand va to sarshavii zimiston dushman bekholu bemador gardid. In vaziyat dar domanakhoi shakhri Moskav ekhsos shud.
Az tarafi ICHSHS chang kharakteri mudofiavi, ozodikhokhi dosht. Mardum ba mudofiai Vatan barkhost. Vazifa az on iborat bud, ki dar mukhlati kutokh tamomi mamalakat ba lageri yagonai kharbi tabdil doda shavad. SHiori asosii mardum «khama chiz ba front, khama chiz baroi alaba» bud.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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