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HAYOTI MANAVI VA MAZHABI

 Hayoti manavi va etiqodoti mazhabii arob qabl az islom ba mo az sarchashmahoi islom – Quron va sunna va makhazhoi digar to andozae malum meboshad. Arabho dar manaviyotu etiqodoti mazhabi az hamsoyahoi khud khele aqib monda budand. Dinu oinhoi butparstivu bisyorkhudoii onho, hanuz dar sathi dinhoi qabilavi-avlodi qaror dosht. Hatto dar in soha hanuz ba poyai dinhoi bisyorkhudoii millivu davlati na rasida budand. SHoironi arab, ki qobiliyati saroyandagii anvoi gunoguni sheri balandpoya: gazal, qasida, marsiya va gayraro doshtand, hamchun shoironi qabilavi ba sitoishu madhi qabilai khud va hajvu mazammati qabilavu avlodi mukholif mepardokhtaand. Dar voqe balandtarin muvaffaqiyati manavii arobi johiliya in sheru adabi onho meboshad.

Dar khonai Kaba ziyoda az sesad yo sesadu shast (360) buthoi qaboili arabro davri ham guzoshta budand. Aksariyat qabilaho buti makhsusi khudro doshtand. Vale dar bayni onho buthoe ham joy doshtand, ki baroi hamai qabilaho mavridi parastish va doroi etibor ba shumor meraft. CHunin yak but, Hubal nom doshtaast. Hubalro taqriban ba martabai khudoi khudoyon meshinokhtaand. Az matni Quron malum meshavad, ki arob ba khudoi ofaridgori Zaminu Osmon, khudoi noayon – Alloh niz mutaqid budand. Baze shoyad ba yagonagii in khudoi ofaridgor bovari doshtand, vale buthoi khudro hamchun vosita-shafe dar nazdi u mehisobidaand.

Ba gayr az Hubal dar Quron az khudoyoni narru modai digar chun: Lot, Manot, Uzzo, Naila, Zul-khalasa, Vadd, Suvo, YAjus, YAuq, (Nig.Q. sur. Nuh, oyati.23 va an- Najm, oyati 19-21) yod shudaast. Arob inchunin ba vujudi quvvahoi bad va ziyonkor dar muqobili quvvahoi nek va khayr, ruhi biyobon, jin va gayra bovar mekardand.

Etiqodi arob ba hayoti pas az marg chandon ravshan nest. Az Quron chunin barmeoyad, ki ba on etiqod nadoshtand. CHunki mukholifoni payombari islom Muhammad (s) dar raddi in chunin talimoti u aqidai dahri bayon kardaand.(Nig.Q. sur.45, oyati24)

Az sarchashmahoi khatti va rivoyot chunin barmeoyad, ki butparasti dar arafai paydoishi islom dar vaziyati inqirozu buhroni qaror doshtaast. Beetinoi ba butho va tamaskhuri onho ruzafzun megardid, omili asosii on barkhurd va oshnoi bo dinhoi volotari tashakkulyofta, chun yahudiya, nasroni va zardushti buda. CHunon ki gufta shud, dar shimol qismate az arob, masalan, gassoniyon dini nasroniro qabul karda budand. Dar YAman nufuzu tasiri zardushtiya ehsos meshud. Muvofiqi rivoyatho, dini nasroni dar khudi Makka niz nufuz doshta va dar devorhoi Kaba naqshi Maseh va paygambaroni digarro kashida budaand.

Hulosa, dar barobari inqirozi parastishhoi bisyorkhudoiyu johiliya, goyai tavhid ba tadrij bayni arabho nufuz mekard. Muballigoni in chunin aqidaro HANIF menomidaand. Dar Quron niz in istiloh (yane hanif) hamchun murodifi yaktoparast (muvahhid) omadast va avvalin hanif Ibrohimi Halilluloh yod shuda.\ Nig. Q. 3: 89; 6:79,162 \

Dar borai tartiboti ijtimoi, akhloqi va maqomi zan dar johliya niz bisyor navishtaand, az jumla tarikhnavisoni islom odati zinda dar gur kardani farzandi navzodi dukhtarro makhsus takid mekunand, ki Quron onro man kard.\ Nig. Q.6:137,140,151; 17: 31; 60:12.\

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