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HIJRATI PAYOMBAR

SHahri YAsrib dar sesadu panjoh km. shahri Makka joy girifta bud. Aholii onro asosan, du qabilai arabi va se qabilai yahudi tashkil mekardand. Du qabilai arabi, ki hazraj va avs nom doshtand va se qabilai yahudi zindagi mekardand, ki banni qurayza, bani qaynoqa va bani Nazir nom doshtand. Ikhtilofu ziddiyat, to haddi dushmani ham bayni khudi on du qabilai arabi va ham bayni in du qabilai arabi va se qabilai yahudi ziyod bud. Onho bisyor vaqt dar holati iang qaror doshtand. In ast ki sokinoni shakhr dar vaziyati noguvor budand va zarurati shakhsi seyumi bejaraze, ki tavonad bayni onkho dovari kunad va osoishu amniyatro dar on shakhr barqaror sozad sakht ekhsos meshud. In ast, ki onkho baroi in maqsad Mukhammadro barguzidand va uro ba shakhri khud davat kardand.

muhammadBa dunboli in dar mavsimi khajji soli badi jamoati ziyode az mardumi YAsrib ba u bayat kardand va paymone bo nomi «paymoni Aqaba» \nomi mahalli imzoi in paymon\ basta shud. Pas az in paymon Muhammad avval payravoni khudro ba YAsrib firistod va sipas khud rakhti safar bast. Nogufta namonad, ki ham guftushunid va ham kuchbandi mahramona, dar voqe gurez az khavfi marge bud, ki ba u tahdid mekard. CHunki nihoyat qurayshiyon tasmim girifta budand,ki uro kushand. Baroi on ki khuni u ba yak yo du avlod taalluq nagirad meboist, chandin nafar javononi quraysh, ba Payombar (s) yakbora hujum karda, ba yakjoyagi uro mekushtand.

Muhammad shabona az Makka hamrohi Abubakr berun omada, dar gore dar domanai kuhi Savr pinhon meshavad va sipas savori shutur rohi YAsribro pesh megirand. Nihyat u bo 70 nafar payravoni khud, ki muhojir nomida shudand, ba YAsrib omad. In voqea dar tarikhi islom bo nomi “hijrat”-i Payombar (s) maruf ast. Va on mutobiq bo 4 sentyabri soli 622 m. buda, az hamin ruz solshumorii hijri ojoz meshavad.

Pas az imzoi “paymoni Aqaba” , ki paymoni jang nomida shud, \chun ahli YAsrib ahd kardand az Muhammad (s) bo molu joni khud difo khokhand kard \ davat ba islom va risolati payombarii u khususiyati nav kasb kard.

Tamomi sezdah soli davat dar Makka az tariqi mavizavu tabligu nasihatu ogohonidan bud. Davat va risolati Muhammad(s) dar Makka ori az har guna hadafi siyosi, sof dini-mazhabi buda ast. Dar in davra risolati Mukhammad (s) ba risolati Esoi Maseh shabohat dosht, u niz misli Eso har guna shikanjavu taqibu fishorro bo sabru burdbori tahammul mekard, dast ba silohu jang yo davat ba jihodro nakardaast.

Ammo bo basta shudani paymoni Aqaba va hijrati payombar ba Madina digargunii kullie dar risolati u ba vujud omad. Muhammad dar barobari payombari, masuliyatu risolati rohbarii siyosiro niz daryoft. Dar in davrai duyum risolati u shabehi risolati Muso ast. U natanho risolati davat ba dini nav, balki risolati rahoi bakhshidan az dastgohi zulm (togut)- muboriza bo dushmanoni islomro daryoft. Mukholifoni Muhammad(s) az Makka bo iqdom ba kushtani Muhammad(s) dar arafai hijrat va taziyavu taqibi musulmonon khudro dar vaziyati oshkoroi jangi bo Payombar (s) qaror doda budand. Az tarafi Hudo niz vahy bo mazmuni ijozat ba jang- “jihod” nozil shud. \ 3. 2: 214\.

Avvalin kore, ki Muhammad(s) dar YAsrib anjom dod bastani paymon bo tamomi aholii YAsrib: musulmonon, butparaston (mushrikon) va yakhudiyon bud. In ast, ki Muhammad (s) pesh az hama hamchun hakam yo qozi ba in shahr dokhil meshavad. Az sarchashmaho malum, ki hanuz pesh az dokhil shudani Muhammad (s) ba Madina ba din va risolati vay aksariyati du qabilai arabi garavida budand. Ba har surat paymoni avvali bo aholii YAsrib sof khususiyatu ahamiyati siyosi dosht. In paymon dar sarchashmaho, az jumla “Tarikhi Tabari” ba purragi omadaast va az kamolu mahorati siyosii Payombar(s) shahodat medihad. \ Nig. 14: 1. 107\

Bo vujudi muvaffaqiyati buzurgi khosila az khijrat ba Madina, dar in shahr niz tabligi islom va munosibati siyosii dokhili shahr alalkhusus, bo yakhudiyon va shaykhoni sobiqi qabilai avs va hazraj khele mushkil va pechida bud. YAhudiyon, ki doroi dini tavhidii mustahkam va derina budand, davathovu risolati payombarii Muhammad(s)-ro ba bodi tamaskhur giriftand. Hamzamon bo mustahkam shudani mavqeiyati Muhammad(s) dar Madina dushmanii yahudiyon beshtar va oshkorotar meshud. Harchand onho paymon namuda, ahdnomaro imzo karda budand, dar botin munofiqi mekardand, dasisaho roh meandokhtand. Ba zammi in ahvoli muhojironi musulmon, ki az Makka hama molu boigarivu khonavu joi khudro partofta, hamrohi Payombar (s) omada budand khele vaznin bud, onhoro bo jovu maosh tamin kardan lozim meomad, to ikhtilof beshtar nashavad.

Dar soli avval hamzamon bo bastani paymon nakhustin kore, ki Payombar(s) kard, binoi maschid bud bo nomi “Masjidi Qubo”. Masjid dar hamon joe, ki hangomi dokhil shudan ba YAsrib noqai Payombar(s) furunishasta bud bino shud. Dar avval, qiblai musulmonon Ierusalim-Baytul-muqaddas bud. Va hamchunin on sol musulmonon ruzai ashurai yahudiyaro doshtand. Dar soli duyum oid ba tagyiri qibla va ruzahoi yakhudivu nasroni ba ruzai mohi Ramazon vahy nozil shud.

Tagyiri qibla az yak suy manii istiqloliyat yoftan va judo shudani islomro az dini yahudi va nasroni doshta boshad, az sui digar hadafi siyosi qaror giriftani Makka, yane samti muborizavu harakati siyosii minbadai ummati islomro nishon medod. Dar soli duyum pai ham Payombar(s) ba qasdi hamla ba korvonhoi Makka iqdom ba chand “gazo” va “siriya”[1] kard. Vale aksari onho biduni muvaffaqiyat budaand. Tanho, dar mobayni mohi Ramazon gazoi”Badr” surat girift. Payombar(s) mekhost korvoni purbori makkiyonro tasarruf kunad, vale korvonsolor Abusufiyon az in naqshai Payombar (s) ogoh shuda az Makka darkhosti kumak mekunad va to rasidani sipoh korvonro az rohi digar ravona karda, onro najot medihad. Bo vujudi in sipohe, ki az Makka baroi difoi korvon rasida budand, bo sipohi islom ba jang mepardozand. Musalmonon dar in jang bo vujudi du barobar kamii miqdor va lavozimoti jangii khud piruz gardidand. Dar in jang tedodi musalmonon hamagi 313 nafar va savoriashon 70 shutur dar barobari sipohi makkiho, ki murakkab az 1000 shamsherzan, 100 asp va 700 shutur bud ast. In avvalin piruzi va galabai musulmonon baroi taqviyati ruhiyai onho kumak namud. Dar hamin sol Payombar(s) bo qabilai yakhudi banni qaynoq, ki paymonro shikasta budand, jangida, onhoro shikast dod va az Madina badarga va molu mulkashonro bayni musulmonon taqsim kard.

Dar soli seyum ahli Makka baroi giriftani qasosi jangi Badr, ki dar on haftod nafar kushta doda budand, ba Madina az nav hujm kardand. In jang nomi jangi ” Uhud”- ro girift.

Hangomi zadukhurd dar nazdi kuhi Uhud tarafi Muhammad(s) shikast mekhurad va Payombari islom(s) majuh megardad, vale sipohi Makka Madinaro tasarruf nakarda bargashtand. In khatoii siyosii Abusufiyon- farmondehi on sipoh bud, ki ba khushbakhtii musulmonon onhoro az shikasti qati rahoi dod. Sababi in shikast tavassuti vahye, ki az Hudo nozil shud, hamchun nofarmonii yak guruh lashkariyoni islom tavzeh gardid. Bad az in Payombar baroi mustahkam kardani mavqei khud dar Madina qabilai yahudi bani-Nazirro, ki paymonro shikasta budand majbur kard, ki ba vodii Haybar dar shimoli Madina kuch bandand.

Dar soli panjumi hijri makkiyon qaror kardand, ki lashkari buzurge orosta ba Madina bitozand va musulmononro barandozand, pas bo dah hazor nafar mard (az qurayshiyon va qaboili sahroi va yahud) Madinaro muhosira kardand. Ahli Madina dar muqobili in mikdor lashkar hamagi sipohe iborat az taqriban se hazor nafar gird ovarda, muqobil guzoshta metavonistand, Muhammad (s) bo maslihati yake az ashobi khud, ki ironinajod bud (Salmoni Fors) dastur dod girdi shahri Madina khandaqe koband. Az in sabab on jangro badan “Jangi khandaq” nomidaand. Dar natija peshi rohi savorahoi makki girifta shud. Onho se hafta Madinaro muhosira kardand va dar okhir bo sababi badii bodu havo va narasidani ozuqa va taminot va az hama muhim ikhtilofi dokhili va ziddiyat bayni lashkariyoni makki, ki onro Abusufiyon sarvari mekard, majbur ba qati muhosira va khotimai jang shudand va bovari hosil kardand, ki Muhammad(s) maglubnopazir ast.

Dar in bayn, bad az galaba, okhirin qabilai yakhudii Madina Banu Qurayza, ki ba Muhammad (s) khiyonat karda, pinhoni hangomi mudofiai Madina, bo dushmanoni Payombar (s) baroi az pusht ba musalmonon zarba zadan paymon basta budand, torumor karda meshavand. Nazdik ba shashsad nafar az onkho kushta, zanho va kudakon ba gulomi furukhta meshavand. Bo hamin Madina purra shahri ummati musalmon gardid.

Kalimai u m m a t ba manii jamoat mafhumest, ki umumiyati dini siyosiro ifoda mekunad va in umumiyat na dar asosi avlodu qabila va millat, balki dar asosi din va mazhab ast. In yak marhila va umumiyati nave dar tarikhi arab va jomeai onruzai bashar bud.

Muhammad (s) dar soli 628 iqdomi favquloddae kard, ki dar rafti muborizai bayni Makkavu Madina naqshi siyosii muassire bozid. Vay nogahon, dar asari ilhomi az vahy giriftaash, bo hazoru panjsad dovtalab, ki beshtar az badaviyon budand, ba hajji kuchak (umra) rohi Makkaro pesh girift. Harbiyoni sabuksilohi Muhammad(s), hamrohi chorpoyoni baroi qurboni girifta shuda, ba Makka nazdik shudand. Mardumi Makka az in iqdomi Muhammad(s) dar haros aftoda kushidand peshi rohi onhoro girand, vale Muhammad(s) ba marzi haram, nazdik shuda, nazdi mahalli al-Hudaybiya bo namoyandagoni Makka ba guftushunid daromad. Dar natijai in guftushunid ahdnomae bo nomi «Ahdnomai Hudaybiya» basta shud, ki muvofiqi on Payombar(s) az hajji on sol munsarif shud, bo chunin shart, ki saroni Makka uhdador shudand, ki soli oyanda uro se ruz ba shahr roh dihand va shahrro dar in mavrid toza kholi kunand. In paymoni nobarobar bud, chunki avvalan, musalmononro ba hajj kardan roh nadodan, soniyan tibqi in qarordod Muhammad(s) muvazzaf bud, har makkie, ki ba tarafi u guzarad ba ahli Makka bozgardonad, vale har madinagie, ki ba Makka panoh barad ahli Makka ukhdador nabudand, ki bargardonand. Bo vujudi in paymoni Hudaybiya khud yak piruzii siyosii islom va etirofi Muhammad (s) hamchun shakhsiyat (subekt)-i quvvai siyosi bud. Soli digar, pas az hachchi umra va amal kardani ahli Makka, tibqi on ahdnoma durustii peshbinii Payombar(s) sobit shud.

Pas az khajji umra hej guna shubha namond, ki tanosubi qudrat dar Arabistoni Markazi digar shuda va dar arsai siyosat qudrati tozanafase dar shakhsi Payombari islom Muhammad(s) zuhur karda, dastbolo shudaast. In bud, ki shakhsoni namoyoni Makka chun Amr ibn Os badan fotehi Misr va sarlashkari maruf Holid ibn al- Valid ba Madina omada khudro ba ikhtiyori Muhammad(s) suporidand. Abusufiyon maruftarin mardi Makka niz ba tarafi Mukhammad(s) guzasht. Amaki Payombar(s), badan asosguzori sulolai abbosiyon al-Abbos niz taqriban dar hamin davra islomro qabul mekunad.

[1] lazo- janghoe, ki khudi Mkhaammad ishtirok doshta, siriya-jangho va barkhurdhoe, ki yake az yoronash sipo1i islomro sarvarp, mekardaast.

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