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ILMHOI KURONI

Quron dar tarikhi tamadduni islomi hamchun omili takondihandai rushdi hamai sohahoi ilm naqshi buzurge bozidaast. Az ilmi sarfu nahv, tajvid-makhoriji ovoz (fonetika)-zoboni arabI to ilmhoi kayhonshinosI dar zaminai niyozhoi shinokhti Kuron peshraft kardand. Alalkhusus, dar in zamina ilmhoi quronI ba vujud omada, farhangi islomiro gani va shinokhti Quronro oson namudand. YAke az chunin ilmho ilmi qiroat meboshad.

ILMI KIROAT dar natijai ikhtilofote, ki hanuz dar sadri islom dar khondani baze oyatho va kalimahoi Quron joy dosht, ba vujud omad. Ulamoi islom vujudi in ikhtilofotro usulan mujoz va tabii medonand, chunki dar hadis ba naql az Payombari islom (s) omadaast: “Inna hoza al-Qurona anzala alo sabati ahrufin fa qarau mo tayassara minhu”-YAne, hamono in Quron ba haft harf furu firistoda shudaast pas on tavre, ki muyassar ast, az on bikhoned. In harfhoi haftgona-“ahrufu- saba”-ro haft lafzi mukhtalif baroi yak mani tabir kardaand.

qiroati-quronIlmi qiroat mavzuoti makhoriji khuruf- fonetikai ovozhoi hurufi arabi va payvasta khondani kalimayu iborot, masoili ohangi tilovat va qavoidi hastand, ki vasl, idgom-bahamfururaftan va gayraro dar bar megirad. In masalaho dar doirai ilmi t a j v i d i Quron omukhta meshavand. Tarikhan, hamchun maruftarin tarzi qiroati Quron khonishi dah qorii maruf qabul shudaast, ki iboratand az: 1Nofe ibni Abdurrahmon ( vaf.s.169 kh.), 2- Abdulloh ibni Kasir, 3-Abu Amr ibni al-Alo, 4- Abdulloh ibni Omir, 5-Osim ibni Abi an-Najud, 6-Hamza ibni Habib. 7-Kisoi, 8- YAqub ibni Ishoq Hazrami, 9- Abujafari Mahzumi, 10-Half ibni Hishom (vaf. s. 229 kh) Az bayni in qoriyoni dahgona tanho haftoi avval shuhrat dorand va mashhurtarin qiroatho niz haft qiroatand.

ILMI TAFSIRVA TAVIL. Ilmi tafsir va tavil dar zaminai zarurati fahmishi amiq va sharhu ezohi oyathoi Quron ba vujud omad. Kalimai ” tafsir”- ro donishmandon az reshai “fasr”-ishtiqoq shuda ba manii kashf yo bardoshtani parda va yo rupushe az boloi chize guftaand va hamchunin in kalima dar zaboni arab ba manii tashkhisu barrasii peshobi bemor ba kor burda shudaast. Manii lugavii tavil ba bargasht ba ogoz yoba asl ast va dar istiloh murodifi tafsir ast. Baze onro daryofti manii botinii oyoti quroni guftaand.

Intishori islom dar bayni aqvomi doroi rasmu oyin va zabonhoi mukhtalif va har andoza dur shudani musalmonon az zamoni Payombar (s) va nihoyat sharoit va muqtazoi zamon zarurati tafsiri oyoti Quron va bayoni sharoiti nuzul va manii in yo on guftahoi quroniro ba miyon ovardand.

Manbahoi tafsir, ki bo kumaki onho maoniro dar meyoband chahortost: 1- tafsiri Quron bo khudi Quron,2- tafsir ba aql, yane bo istifoda az usuli aqlivu mantiqi; 3- tafsir ba naql bo istifoda az rivoyot, hadisho va guftahoi sahobagon; 4 -tafsir bo isroiliyot, az tiriqi tavzehi qissahoi quroni bo istifoda az akhbor va sarchashmahoi dini yakhudi va nasroni.

Boyad guft, ki dar mavridi tafsir kardan yo nakardani Quron, chigunagii meyori tafsir, majoz budan yo nabudani tafsir ba ray bahshoi ilohiyoti va ilmii ziyode shudaand. Az lihozi navi tafsir niz tafsirho gunogunand, az jumla baze tafsirho beshtar ba bayoni mushkiloti lafzivu nahvii Quron, digare, ba ravshani andokhtan ba sharoit va zamoni nozil shudani oyot, seyumin, ba usul va masoili ilohiyotivu falsafii on tavajjuh kardaand.

Mufassir \-shakhsi tafsirkunanda\-ro donistani yak zumra ulum, az jumla: sarfu nahvi arabi, tarikhu sharoiti tarikhi va khususiyati adabu sheri arab, alalkhusus davrai johiliya, mantiq, ilmi hadis va marifati rijol, fiqh, osori dinhoi ibrohimi (isroiliyot) va gayra zarur bud.

Mufassiron niz chand nasl tashkil dodaand. Nasli avvalro dar ilmi tafsir sahobahoi Payombar (s) chun: chor khalifi avval- hazaroti Abubakr as-Siddiq, Umar ibn-Hattob, Usmon ibn Affon va Ali ibn Abutolib (r) va sahobaho Ibn Abbos, Abumuso Ashary, Abdulloh ibni Zubayd, Molik ibni Anas va jayra budand. Nasli duyumi mufassiron payravoni in sahobaho budand, ki ” t o b e i n ” nomida shudaand. Bad az in nasli ” a t b o i t o b e in “ ogoz meshavad, ki hududi asri III – IV hijriro dar bar megirad. Dar hamin davra komiltarin tafsiri Quron bo nomi “Jomeul-bayon fi tafsiril-Quron”, ki mukhtasar bo nomi “Tafsiri Tabary” maruf ast, navishta meshavad. In tafsir solhoi 1940- 1946 dar Misr, dar 31 jild chop shuda ast. Muallifi on Abujafar Muhammadibni Jarir at-Tabary (224-310kh) mutavallidi Omul nom mahallai Tabariston (Mozandaroni Eron) bud. Tafsiri Tabary yake az sarchashmahoi muhimi mazhaby, farhangy va tarikhii islom ast, ki tasiri amiqe ba rushdi ilmi tafsir va shinokhti digar sohahoi ulumi islomy guzoshtaast.

Duvvumin, tafsiri maruf “At-tibyon fi tafsiril-Quron” nom dorad va onro Abujafar Muhammad ibni Hasan at-Tusy (385-460 khqq), yake az buzurgoni mazhabi shia dar bist jild navishtaast. Bad az in du metavon ba tartib az tafsihoi maruf chun: tafsiri “Al-kashshof an haqoiq-il-gavomiz-it-tanzil”, maruf ba “Tafsiri Kashshof”-i alloma az- Zamakhshary Jorulloh Abulqosim Mahmud ibni Umar; “Kashshof- al-asror va udda-tul- abror”-i Abulfazl Rashid-ud- Din Maybudy; “Garoib-ul-Quron” maruf bo nomi “Tafsiri Nishopury”; “Anvor- ut-tanzil va asror-ut-tavil” maruf ba “Tafsiri Bayzovy”, “Tafsiri ibn Kasir”, “Tafsiri Jalolayn”, “Majmaul- bayon fi tafsir- al-Quron”-i SHaykh Aminuddin Abufazl ibni Hasan Tabarsy, “Miftoh-ul-gayb” yo “Tafsiri kabir”-i Imom Fakhruddin Rozy (543-606 kh.) va gayra nom burd. Tedodi tafsirhoi sunny va shia khelo ziyodand va imruz niz tafsirnavisy idoma dorad. Az tafsirhoi nav (dar hududi asri XIX-HH navishta shuda) maruftarinashon Al-Javohir fitafsiral-Quron al-karim”-i SHaykh Tantovy (misry), “al-Mizon fi tafsiri al Quron”-i Muhammad Huseyni Tabotaboy ,va “Tafsir al-Manor”-i SHaykh Muhammad Rashid Rizo meboshand.

Ilmi tafsir yake az dastovardhoi tamadduni islomist, ki hamchun manbai mazhabiyu diny, ilohiyotivu falsafy, tarikhy va zabonivu adaby khelo ahamiyatu arzishi ziyode dorand. Ba gayr az ilmi qiroat va tafsir boz yak zumra ilmhoi digari qurony mavjudand. Masalan, «ilmi naskh va mansukh»- shinokhti oyote, ki badan az tarafi Hudo beetibor (mansukh) shuda, «ilmi tajvid-fonetika», «ilmi tanzil va ejoz»-i Quron vale mashhurtarini onho khamin du ilm meboshand, ki mo bayon kardem va bo hamin ba in fasl khotima medihem.

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