Home / Ilm / Iqtisodiyot va khojagi dar okhiri asri XIX. Zamindori va khojagii qishloq.

Iqtisodiyot va khojagi dar okhiri asri XIX. Zamindori va khojagii qishloq.

Asosi iktisodii Bukhoroi SHarqi dar asri XIX ba tarzi peshtara khochagii kishlok bo tariki munosibathoi pairiatrialkhari tashkil medod. Asosi zamindoriro molikiyati khususi ba zamin va sistemai obyorikuni tashkil mekard.
Amaldoron az mansabhoi khud istifoda burda, tamomi mushkiloti zindagiro ba dushi tabaqai kambagal bor mekardand. Dar tamomi amorati Bukhoro, khususan dar nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikistoni imruza zaminho ba chunin qismho taqsim shuda budand. Zaminhoi amlaki-davlati, zaminhoi mulki-shakhsi, tanho zaminhoi vaqfi! Dekhdonone, ki dar kitahoi khurdi zaminhoi amloki kor mekardand alakay dar vaziyati kreposnoi budand. Ba ivazi istifodai porchahoi nochizi zamin az onho dar shaklhoi gunongun andozahoi ziyode sitonda meshud. Zaminhoi amlaki asosan ba tavri meros az dast ba dast meguzashtand. Dehqonon aksar vaqt bo nomi shar dar zaminhoi amlakdor va digar amlakdoroni kalon tamoman be muzd kor farmuda meshudand. Dehqonone, ki dar zaminhoi amloki kor mekardand az se yak hissai hosilro mesuporidand. Masalan dar bekisharii Hissor chunin navhoi andoz vuchud dosht. Dehqonon baroi istifoda az zaminhoi obi khums, yane panchyaki hosilotro va az zaminhoi lalmiursh, yane dakhyaki hosilotro medodand. Gayr az in amlakdor hangomi andoz gundori rasman az har yak batman (takriban 12 put) hosili zamini obi yak nimkhurd (32 kadok) va az zamini lalmi nimchoryak (8 kadok) haq mesitonid. Doruga, ki ba gundoshtani khiroch, saru kor dosht, ba tariqi kavsan muhrona megirift. Hissai mirob barobari hissai amlakdor bud. Oksakol az har batman nimchoryaki hosilro daryoft mekard. Nihoyat domulloimom hamagi du galabai 64 kadoka “haqi olloh” gufta megirift. Pas az hamai inho darveshonu kalandaron omada, nazr talab mekardand. Zaminhoi mulki boshad, yua tavri ozod az nasl ba nasl meros guzoshta meshud.
Zaminhoi tanho boshad dar Bukhoroi SHarqi nihoyat daracha pahn gardida budand. “SHakhsone, ki ba manfiyati amir yo bek khizmati sazovor mekardand ba u chamchun mukofot tanho medodand”. Zaminhoe, ki dar ikhtiyori tankhokhdor bud muvvaqati budand. Zaminhoi vaqfi boshand asosan dar dastai ruhoniyon budand. Ruhoniyon zaminhoi ba tari mukofoti ba meovardand. Dar chunin zaminhoi dehqonon mehnat namuda, ba foida davlat yo ba shakhsoni alohidai ruhoni andoz mesuporidand.
Qismi ziyodi rayonhoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikistonro kuhsor tashkil medihad. Az chihati sharoiti iklim in nohiho az yakdigar fark mekunand. Dar bekigarihoi Karotegin va Darvoz zaminhoi obyorshuda ziyodtar budand. Dekhdonon asosan dar in mintaqaho pesh az hama ba ziroatchigi va chorvodori mashgul budand. Dar Hissoru Kulob asosan gandum, chav, nakhud, pakhta, birinch,, zagir, kuchit, piyoz, lablabu, kadu, shalgam, bodiring, tarbuz, kharbuza va dar Qarotegin Darvoz boshad asosan cha gandum, mushung, arzan, kunok va zagiru nakhud kisht mekardand. Dekhdononi Hissoru Kulob gandumi ziyod kisht karda tamomi aholii bekigarihoi khudro ba gandum tamin namuda, kisme az hosili khudro ba tarafi Darvozu Qarotegin mefiristonidand.
Az chihati zaminhoi obi dar choi aval Hissor va bad Kulobu Qarotegin meistod. Az sababi on, ki dar yak qator mintaqahoi Bukhoroi SHarki, khususan vodi Vakhsh korhoi obyori ba tavri boyadu shoyad ba roh monda nashuda bud, kori dekhdononro boz ham mushkiltar megardonid.
CHarogokhdoi ziyode, ki dar in mintaqa vuchud doshtand baroi chorvodori va rivochi musoidat menamudand. CHorvodoron asosan ba parvarishi zothoi gunoguni chorvo mashgul budand. Dar nokhiyahoi kukhi-Darvozu Qarotegin zothoi gunoguni gusfand, buzgov parvarish meyoft. CHorvodori shugli duvvumindarachai bekigarihoi Hissoru Qarotegin va Darvoz bud. Dar nohiyahoi CHanubu SHarki va Markazii Tikiston CHorvodorone budand, ki az 10 hazor sar chorvo dar ikhtiyori khud nigoh medoshtand. Dar okhirhoi asri XIX tanho dar bekigarii Qarotegin 150 hazor sar chorvoi kaloni shokhdor ki az se yak hissash govhoi dushoy bud parvarish meyoftand.
Dar bekigarii Kulob boshad 250 hazor sar gusfand, 60 hazor sar gov, 30 hazor sar asp, 25 hazor sar, 200 sar ushtur dar ikhtiyori chorvodoron bud.
Hamai in faktu raqamho guvohi onand, ki dar nimai duvvumi asri XIX chorvodoron dar nokhiyahoi CHanubu SHarqi va Markazii Tochikiston inkishov yoft, ki baroi hayoti iktisodii in nokhiyaho ahamiyati kalon dosht. Munosibathoi feodali va istismori sakhti aholii mahali sadi rokhi tarakiyoti khochagii kishlok megardid.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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