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Islom dar sharoiti imruza – Islomi muosir

Islom imruz yake az se dini bonufuz meboshad. Payravoni islom dar jahon muvofiqi guzorishi sozmonhoi islomi imruz ziyoda az yak milliard nafarro tashkil medihand va dar 126 kishvar sukunat dorand. Az jumla dar ziyoda az 40 kishvar musalmonon aksariyati aholi va dar 18 kishvari digar aqaliyati bonufuzro tashkil medihand. Musalmonon imruz mintaqai vaseero dar qitahoi: Osiyovu Afriqo ( Hovari Miyona va Nazdik, Osiyoi Janubu Garbi, Afriqoi SHimoliyu Tropiki va g-ra) ishgol kardaand. Aqaliyathoi islomi dar Qitahoi Amriko va Avrupo, dar baze joyho tarikhan muqimi ( chun Albaniya, Bulgoriston va YUgoslovi) va dar bazei digar chun tozamuqimi- emigront zindagi mekunand. YAk qator mamlakatho nomi jumhurii islomiro dorand. Masalan: Jumhurii Islomii Pokiston, Jumkhurii islomii Eron, Jumhurii islomii Afgoniston va g-ra) va dar hududi 28 davlat islomro hamchun dini rasmi dar Qonunhoi asosii khud etirof kardaand. Islom imruz bad az parokanda shudani sistemai sutsiolisti  va kametibor gardidani ideolujii kommunisti yake az du mafkurai bonufuzi jakhoni dar muqobili mafkurai nasroni va ideulujii istemorii Amriko meboshad.

Naqshi ijtimoiyu siyosii islom dar sad soli okhir dar kishvarhoi Osiyovu Afriqo yak rang nabudaast. Dar marhalai avval pas az shikasti payo-pai mamlakathoi islomi dar muqobili fishoru zarbahoi harbiyu siyosi va iqtisodii kishvarhoi garbi musalmonon ba tadrij az khobi gaflati Kuruni vustoh bedor shuda, ba vaziyati aqibmondagii iqtisodivu siyosi va ilmiyu tekhnikii khud ogoh gardidand. Hamzamon bo darki in vaziyat guruhe az tahsilkardaho, havonon va ravshanfikroni taraqqikhohi in kishvarho dar pai justuuui sababu illati in aqibmondagi va jakholat aftodand. Dar natija guruhe ba khulosae omadand, ki illat dar khususiyati shakhshudagi va tajyirnopazirii dini islom ast, guruhi digare sababi aqibmondagiro dar dur va begonagardidani musalmonon az islomi asil- az usulhoi dini Muhammad, ba taqlidu khurofot, bidatho, va ba jaholat oluda gardidani on didand. Vobasta ba hamin hanuz dar nimai asri H1H du nav munosibat ba islom va du nav nuskhai darmon va du tamoyuli rahoijui az in holati aqibmondagi va jaholat ba miyon omad.

Tamoyuli avval rohi khalosiro dar dunyavi (sekulyariza) kardani munosibathoi jamiyati, yane az zeri tasir va hokimiyati din berun kashidani munosibatkhoi ijtimoi, iqtisodi, siyosi va madaniyu farkhangi va aksaran taqlidi kurkurona ba Gasb va jalb kardani sharqiyon medidand. In guruh dar tadqiqothoi okhiri jomiashinosoni in kishvarkho” garbzada” nomida shudaand. Baraks tamoyuli duyum, bo vujudi dar nazari avval kuhnaparast va sunnatgaro budan, illatro na dar islom balki dar musalmonon, shakli dindori va shuuri dinii onho medid, ba qavli shoir: ” Islom ba zoti khud nadorad aybe, Har ayb, ki hast dar musalmonii most” meguftand. Va az in ru rohi khalosiro dar islohi shuuri dinii musalmonon va shinokhti durusti islom va sarchashmahoi on va inchunin zinda kardani ananai peshqadami guzashtai olami islom medidand. Onho naqshi islomro dar muboriza bo mustamlikadori va istemori jaybi khub dark namuda, baroi safarbari va taididi maidu iftikhor va shukhrati faromushshudai musalmonon az guzashtai ilmu farkhang va Kudrati siyosii khalKkhoi musalmon yod mekardand. In gurukh bo nomi muslikhin – islokhotchiyoni (reformatoron)-i islom dar adabiyoti ilmi mashkhurand. Islokhgaron shakhsiyatkhoi maruf, mutafakkironi nomii olami islomand, ki to imruz dar atrofi osori onkho takhKiKot va bakhsu barrasikhoi ilmh idoma dorad va onkho dar tarikhi navini kishvarkhoi islomh, dar rokhi ba dast ovardani istiKloliyati millh, ozodh az zeri yuju sultai mustamlikadorh va peshrafti iitimoiyu farkhangii va ilmii in kishvarkho naKshi benikhoyat buzurg dorand.

Avvalin bayraKbardoroni n a kh z a t i i s l o kh ( yo t a i d i d i f i k r iyu d i n h ) alloma Sayid Yamoluddin Afjonh (1839-1897), ustod Mukhammad Abdoh misrh (1834-1905), Abdurrakhmon KavoKibii misrh (1849-1902), Rashid Rizo va Akhmad Amini misrh va alloma Mukhammad IKboli Lokhurii pokistonh (1877-1938) budand, ki iikhati bedorii musalmonon, ekhyoi maidu iftikhori faromushshudai onho, sofkori va poksozii shuuri dinii onho az khurofothoi afyuni va shinosonidani islomi asili muhammadi iqdomhoi farovone kardand.

Az bobi misol Sayid Jamoluddin bo tavajjuh ba vazi onruzai musalmonon, ki guzashtai puriftikhori siyosi va ilmiyu farhangii khudro az dast doda, ba jakholatu khurofotho furu rafta budand, chunin farmuda: ” Agar mo khohem islomro ba garbiyon muarrafi kunem, pesh az hama boyad iqror shavem, ki mo musalmon nestem..” Manzuri Sayid Jamoliddin Afgoni on bud, ki onchiro ki mo ba unvoni islom parastish mekunem, islomi asil nest va on musalmonie, ki mo dorem musalmoni nest. Dar borai har mafkuravu din inson az rui vazu holati ijtimoiyu siyosi va maqomi payravoni vay dar jomiai jakhhoni baho medihad, dar surate, ki kishvarhoi islomi hama dar asorati mustamlikavi va jahlu aqibmondagi budand, baroi garbi tarifi islom metavonist bo piskhandi ” Rang binu khol purs” tamom shavad.

Nahzati isloh, dar okhiri asri XIX na tanho dar Misru Eronu Hinduston, balki dar Osiyoi Markazi niz mushohida meshavad. CHun dar hama kishvarkhoi islomi ravshanfikri va maorifparvarii asil bo islokhi mazhabi tavam va boham budaand. Omili paydoishi nahzati islomi mazkhabi va maorifparvari dar Osiyoi Markazi niz misli digar kishvarhoi islomi barkhurd bo Garb, shikast dar muqobili mustamlikadori va ehsosi aqibmondagi va asorat bud. Zeri tasiri nahzathoi islomii kishvarhoi hamsoya va barkhurdi bevosita bo madaniyat va dastovardhoi iqtisodivu tekhnikii Russiyai podshohi, mutafakkiron va ravshanfikroni Osiyoi Markazi, alalkhusus markazi ilmiyu farhangii onruzai in mintaqa Bukhoro, dar osori khud zarurati tajdidi fikru andeshai dini, maslai ru ovardan ba ilmu marifat va islohi sokhtori siyosiro ba miyon guzoshtand.

Az maruftarin reformatoron- muslihoni in davra Abumansur Husravi va Mullo SHahobuddin ibn Bahouddin (Marjoni) ki hardu az totorhoi klon buda, dar Bukhoro tahsilu faoliyat kardaand va hamchunin Mullo Fozili Gijduvoni, Mullo Goyiboi Hujandi, Mullo Hudoyberdii Boysuniro metavon nom burd. Inho az avvalin shakhsiyatkhoi islohtalab va bedoru ogahe budand, ki baroi afkori peshqadami ravshanfikri va islohtalabii khud mavridi taqibi amironi mangitiya qaror girifta baze firor va baze muhokima shudand. Vale qullai balandi afkori ravshanfikri va tajdidkhohiro chi dar umuri talimu tarbiya , chi dar umuri siyosi va chi dar shuuri dinii mo dar osori garonmoyai Ahmadi Donish, alalkhusus dar risolai “Navodirulvaqoe”i u paydo mekunem. Ba dunboli Ahmadi Donish shogirdoni u chun Sadriddin Ayni, Abdurauf Fitrat va i adibon andeshahoi ziyode dar mavridi tajdidi shuuri dini, tanqidi shakli dindori va jahlu hurofoti amorati Bukhoro bayon karda, dast ba iqdomoti amaliyu inqilobh niz zadand.

Okhiri asri H1H va nimai avvali asri HH nahzati tajdidi fikridini ba du shokha judo meshavad: yake modernizm, ki kushishi ba sharoit va mafhumhoi nav muvofiqu most kardani islom va justuju mafhumhoi ilmiyu tekhniki va ijtimoiyu iqtisodii navro dar quronu khadisho dosht, digare shokhai ehyoi (bunyodgaroi) islomi asil, ki mavqei voKeii ravshanfikron bud. Metavon guft to solhoi 70umi asri HH mavqe va dasti guruhi avval bolo bud, harchand tasiri bevositai osoru talimoti reformatoroni nomburda, hamesha vujud dosht. Modernizm hamchun ideolujii burjuaziyai mahallii kishvarhoi SHarqi islomi dar in marhila haddi aksari kushishro mekard, to islomro ba ahdofi siyosivu iqtisodii khud muvofiq sozad. Vale az solhoi 70um ba bad burjuaziya mavqe va naqshi sobiqi khudro dar kishvarhoi islomi az dast dod va bar ivazi on dar sahnai tarikh tabaqoti poyonii jomia, mustazafin va maydaburjua baromadand va az nav shiorhoi ehyoi islomi muhammadi, ozodi va istiqloli voqei, khudshinosi va tajdidi shuuri mazhabi ba miyon omadand. YAke az muhimtarin khususiyati davrai nav afzudani naqshi siyosii islom dar nahzathoi milliyu ozodikhokhi bud. Agar dar davrai inqilobkhoi burjuazi islom hamchun yake az vositaho va yake az unsurhoi ideolojiyai burjuazi ba kor rafta boshad, dar in davra ideolojiyai islomi ba quvvai asosii peshbaranda tabdil meyobad. Qullai olii in nahzati nav Inqilobi Islomii Eron bud, ki bo sarvarii Oyatulloh Uzmo Humayni ba galaba noil gardida, ba poygohi imperializmi jahoni dar mintaqa zarbai korie zad. Pas az Inqilobi Islomii Eron yak qator hodisahoi siyosie rukh dodand, ki dalolat ba faol gardidani omilho va Quvvahoi siyosii islomi dar mintaqa mekardand az jumla: ishgoli MasjidulHarom dar Makka az tarafi Quvvahoi mukholifi rejimi Saudi, kushta shudani prezidenti Jumjurii Arabii Misr Anvar Sodot dar oktyabri soli 1981 az tarafi guruhi hamlai sozmoni ” Ikhvonul muslimin”: ” al-Iikhod” yo “at-Takfir val-khijra”, ru ba afzoish nihodani amaliyoti guruhhoi mukholif dar Tunis va Aljazoir, naqshi muboriz va faoli sozmoni “Amal” va”Hizbulloh” ba muqobili Isroil dar Lubnon va nihoyat jalabai Quvvahoi mujohidini islomi dar jangi Afgoniston bar artishi nomdori Ittihodi Jamohiri SHuravi.

Hulosa, khususiyati asosii islomi muosir afzudani naqshi siyosi va ideolujii on dar sathi jahoni meboshad. Okhiri asri HH, asri az nav ba sahnai siyosi baromadani islom, ru ba afzoish nihodani omuzishu tahqiqot dar atrofi mavzuhoi “Islom va siyosat”, ” Islom va iqtisodiyot”, “Iomiai tavhidii islomh”, “Davlati islomh” va jayra bud.

Afzudani naKshi iakhonii islomro inchunin az ru afzudani sozmonkhoi iakhonh va baynalmilalii islomh daryoftan mumkin ast. Imruz sozmonkhoi zerini baynalmilalii islomh amal mekunand: 1– SOZMONI KONFrONSI ISLOMI ( ba arabh.-Munazzamat-ul mutamaral-islomi)- in sozmoni bayni davlatii kishvarhoi Osiyovu Afriqo soli 1969 tashkil shuda, 44 davlat va Sozmoni ozodibakhshi Falastinro dar bar megirad. Organi olii in sozmon konfronsi saroni davlatho va hukumatho meboshad;

2– Anjumani Olami Islomi (Mutamaral-Olamal- Islomiya)- in sozmon soli 1926 dar Makka tashkil shuda, dar 67 kishvar namoyandagi dorad. In sozmon maqomi sozmoni gayri huqamatii mashvarati dar nazdi Sozmoni Milali Muttahid va maqomi nozirro dar Sozmoni Konfronsi Islomi dorad;

3- Ligai Olami Islomi (Robitatul-Olam al-Islomh)- soli1962             dar Makka

tashkil yofta, sozmoni gayri hukumatii baynalkhalkii islomi meboshad.

Dar sharoiti hozira jayr az in se sozmoni mutabare, ki yod shud boz chandin sozmonu tashkilothoi baynidavlati, mintaqavii ijtimoiyu siyosi, iqtisodivu ilmi, madaniyu farhangi va gayra amal mekunand. Masalan: Banki imronii islomi, Mukhobiroti baynalkhalqii islomi, Sozmoni islomi oid ba talim va madaniyat, Mahkama(Sud)-i adolati islomi va jayra mavjudand. Dar yak khudi kishvarhoi arabi ziyoda az 130 tashkilotu sozmonhoi mahalli, ahzobi siyosii islomi va gayra amal mekunand.

Hulosa, dar sharoiti hozira, bo vujudi hanuz ham ba sathi imruzai peshrafti ilmiyu tekhniki narasidani aksari kishvarhoi islomi, islom yake az dinho va ideolujihoi bonufuzi jahoni va kishvarhoi islomi doroi imkonoti azimi iqtisodi va zakhirahoi tabii meboshand. Iakhishi iqtisodiyu ijtimoii yak qator kishvarhoi islomi chun: Amoroti Arabii Muttakhida, Davlati Arabiston Saudi, Quvayt, Eron dalolat bar on mekunand, ki az likhozi ilmiyu farhangi va khatto tekhnuluji, kishvarhoi islomi imkoni rasidan ba sathi imruzai jahoniro niz dorand.

Inak fasli dini islomro niz in jo khotima mebakhshem va umedvorem, ki shinsoi bo maorifi islomi yak olami tozaero baroi javononi mo boz karda, dar shinokhti tarikh, farhang, adabiyotu zabon, falsafayu huquqi guzashta onhoro madad va omili tashakkuli hissu jururi sozandai milli, itminon ba nafs, istiqomat dar bakhsu mujodilaho gardad.

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