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QURON VA ILMHOI QURONI

Quron – az kal. ar.- qaraa- khondan \ nomi kitobi muqaddasi musalmonon ast. Quronro inchunin “Kalomi SHarif”, “Kalom-ul-Loh”,”Mushaf”,”Ummul-kitob” \ modari kitobho\ va gayra menomand, ki dar khudi Quron bo chunin nomho yod shudaast. Quron, muvofiqi etiqodi musalmonon, vahy \sukhanon\-i ilokhi meboshad, ki Hudo ba Payombari islom Mukhammad (s) ba vositai ” Ruhul-Quddus” \Jabrail\ qism-qism nozil karda ast, yane furu ovardaast. Muvofiqi aqidai aksari ulamoi islom mujizai asosii Payombari islom Muhammad(s) hamin Quron ast. Quron, dar barobari kitobi muqaddasi mazhabi budan, yak sarchashmai nodiri tarikhi, adabiyu badei, zaboni va umuman yake az shohasarhoi nodiri tamadduni bashar meboshad.

quronSokhtori Quron chunin ast. Vay az 114 sura \bob\ iborat buda, har sura ba chandin oyat \ jumla yo porchahi khurd\ taqsim meshavad. Surah dar Quron az rui darozii onho joy doda shudaand. Surahoi daroz dar avval va surahoi kutoh dar okhir\ ba juz surai avval surai Fotiha\. Harchand aksari surahoi kutoh on surahoe meboshand, ki peshtar, dar ogozi davat nozil shudaand. Hamagi dar Quron 6204­6660 oyat \sababi ikhtilof gunogunii taqsimoti oyatho dar nashrhoi gunoguni on ast\. Fondi lugavii Quronro 77934 kalima va 323621 harf tashkil kardaast. Surahoe, ki dar shahri Makka nozil shudaand makki va surahoe, ki dar shakhri Madina nozil shudaand, madinai nomida shudaand.

Ba Muhammad vahyi nakhustin dar mohi Ramazon \Q. 2: 181 \ nozil shud, az in ru Ramazon moh muqaddas ba shumor meravad va musalmonon dar in moh ruza megirand. Quron, muvofiqi guftai khudi Quron az hamon asle nozil shudaast, ki Tavrot va Injil sarchashma giriftaand. \Q. 26: 197 \.

Uslubi nasri Quron shabohatu qarobat ba nasri musajja- nasri qofiyadorro dorad. Harchand lahne monand ba sajro pesh az islom hamchun vositai tablig va duovu afsun kohinoni arab ba kor meburdaand, to Quron dar adabiyotu dini arob asare ba in fasohat va ganovati fikri paydo nashudaast. Nasri Quroni na sher astu na nasri musajjai komil. Uslubi Quroni yak uslubi khosest. Zimnan meboyad qayd kard, ki badeiyati Quron ohangnokii oyathoi on va navhoi qiroati on omili muhimi tasirbakhsh, ehsosangezi dar marosimhoi islomi meboshad va on az yak jihat naqshu vazifai musiqi va noqusro dar dinhoi digar ijro mekunad.

  1. Vaqte ki Payombari islom (s) vafot kard Quron hanuz ba shakli kitob tadvin nashuda bud. Vale qismati ziyodi oyathoi Quronro kotiboni Payombar(s) dar rui pusti darakht, bargi khurmo, sangho sabt va roviyon dar khotir hifz karda budand. Nomi roviyon va kotiboni Muhammad (s) to ba mo omada rasidaast va onho: Alh ibni Abutolib, Ubaya ibni Kaab, Abdullokh ibni Masud, Zayd ibni Sobit, Abudardo, Abumuso Asharh meboshand. Dar soli 11 -um -12-umi khijri dar davrai khilofati Abubakr bisyore az sahobaho va donandagoni Quron, dar jangho baroi mustahkam kardani islom bo mudaiyoni payombari va az islom gashtagon \radda\ kushta shudand. In hodisa Umar ibni Hattobro vodor kard, ki ba Abubakr maslikhat dihad, to jihati az bayn na raftani oyoti Quron, ba jamovarii on iqdom namoyand. In vazifaro ba uhdai Zayd ibni Sobit mesuporand. Majmuai avvalini tartibdodai Quron nomi“Suhuf”-ro girifta bud va on ba rasmiyat va qatiyat shinokhta nashud. Hamzamon yo kame badtar az tahriri avvalini Zayd ibni Sobit girdovari va tahrirhoi digari Quron tavasuti chahor sahobai digar: Ubaya ibni Kab \ dar Dimishq\, Abdullo ibni Masud \ dar Kuffa\, Abumuso Abdulloh Ashari \ dar Basra\ va Miqdod ibni Asvad \dar Hims\ ba amal barovarda meshavand. In chahor majmuai Quron bo majmuai Zayd ibni Sobit va bayni khud doroi baze ikhtilofot budand, ki sababi sar zadani bahsho va ziddiyath dar amaliya va aqoidi dini gardidand. Az in ru dar davrai khilofati Usmon- khalifai seyum maslihat bar on shud, ki tahriri navu yagonai Quron ba amal barovarda shavad. Usmon in korro boz ba uhdai Zayd ibn Sobit- muhrriri tadvini nuskhai avval meguzorad. Bad az anjomi girdovari va tahriri okhirin az on chand nuskha taksir gardid, ki ba shahrhoi digari khilofat firistoda shudand. Muvofiqi rivoyatho in tahriri okhirini Quron du sura az tahriri Ubaya kam va du sura nazar ba tahriri Ibni Masud ziyod budaast. Ba gayr az in dar bayni in tahrirho yak qator tafovuthoi orfografiyu luhjavi vujud doshtaand. Aqidae niz mavjudast, ki Usmon Quronro az nav jamovari nakarda balki tanho tamomi musalmononro ba qiroati yagona- khonishi yak qorii muayyan jam va mutahid namud va tamomi Quronhoi digarro, ki bo on qirat muvofiq nabudand suzond va az bayn burd.\ Muhammad Huseyn Zahabi. at-Tafsir val-mufassirin. Kohira. «Doul-kutub al-misriya».1396 h.q. s. 224-249\

Tabiist, ki dar atrofi mundarijai tahriri usmonii Quron baze ikhtilofho ba vujud omadaand. Az jumla khorijiyon-yake az firqahoi shia qissai ishqvarzii hazrati YUsuf bo zani misriro ba shani kitobi muqaddas noravo shumoridaand, hamchunin baze shiahoi ifroti niz muddaiyand oyathoe, ki dar mavridi Ali va martabai u budand, bo dasti Usmon hazf shudaand. Baroi isboti fikri khud onho ba vujudi gusastagii afkor va adami vujudi aloqai mani dar bayni baze oyathoi quroni ishorat mekunand.

Boyad guft, ki pas az tahriri usmoni niz to okhiri asri H ba Quron az nazari imlovu khonish baze tagirothoi juzi dokhil karda shudaand. Az jumla alomatguzori \ guzoshtani harakot-sadonokhoi kutoh, sukun, idgomot va g-ra \ dar asri H zeri nazari haft faqehi mashhur va qoriyoni sohibtajriba anjom girifta ast. In tahrirho ba mazmunu mundarijai Quron khej tasiru tagyiroti jiddie dokhil nakardaand va metavon guft, ki Quron yagona kitobi muqaddasest, ki bilofosila bad az payombari on yo hatto zamoni dar hayot budani u, girdovari va tadvin shudaast va kamtarin tahrif va dastkorie dar on roh nayofta ast. Alalkhusus bad az tahriri usmoni dar tuli chahordah qarn Quron be kamtarin tagyire to ba mo rasidaast.

Mundarijai Quron gunogunmazmun va khelo boyyu gani ast. Dar on masalahoi mukhtalifi diniyu mazkhabi: khudoshinosi, payombari, hayoti pas az margii ondunyovi-maod, tasviri sahnai okhirat- ruzi hisob, jannatu duzakh; khamchunin masoili hastishinosi- ofarinishi olam va odam, taqdiri khasti, surati kayhon va alalkhusus masoili manaviyu akhloqi va huquqi, tarzi zindagi va muomiloti musalmonon; masoili huquqi va tarikhi paydoishi islom va havodisi vobasta ba on bayon shudaand. Surahoi davrai madinai aksaran khususiyati targibi va qonunguzori dorand. Onho asosan ba muqobili hayoti ijtimoi va manaviyu mazhabii johiliya va rasmu rusumi butparasti ravona shudaand. Hamchunin havodisi tarikhii marbut ba paydoishi islom, gazovot va muhoribahoi sadri islom dar on inikos yoftaand.

Dar Quron besh az hama asoshoi jahonbinii tavhidi va zimnan tarzi navi munosibatho, munisibathoi nisbat ba zamoni khud odilona va progressivii jamiyati, oilavi, milli, sinfiyu tabaqoti, siyosi va normahoi navi akhloqi va umuman asoshoi jahonbinii islomi ifodai khudro yoftaand. Dar Quron unsurhoi umumiyat doshta bo dinhoi yakhudi, nasroni va adyoni digar ziyodand. Hamai iqtibosho va mazmunhoi yakhudivu nasroni dar Quron tibqi takhqiqoti sharqshinosonu islomshinoson ( onhoe, ki ba vahy budani Quron bovari nadorand) takhmin mekunand, ki na bevosita az sarchashmaho va kitobhoi muqaddasi in dinho, balki az manbai seyum, az tariqi naqli dahoni yo az yahudiyoni talmudi va yo az rohiboni nasroni girifta shuda,. Vale az nazari ulamoi islom vujudi in umumiyatho- qissaho va mazmunkhoi tavrotivu injili ravshan va bebahs ast, chun ham Tavrot va ham Injil va ham Quron yak asl, yak sarchashma- Lavhi Mahfuz yo Ummul Kitobro dorand. Quron shoyad dar bayni kitobhoi muqaddas yagona kitobe boshad, ki dar on bevosita sukhan az zaboni Hudo omadaast va ba in mazmun dar voqe ” Kalomu-loh” meboshad. On misli Bibliya khususiyati naqliyu akhboi az zaboni shakhsi seyum va yo misli Vedho va Avasto asosan az niyoishu munojoti payombaron yo muminon iborat nest, balki guftori be vositai ilohi- amru nahiyoti ust.

Nihoyat shinokhti Quron baroi millali musalmon, sarfi nazar az dindor budan va nabudanash, alalkhusus baroi ravshanfikron va ziyoiyon jihati shinokhti farhang va tamadduni guzashtai khud khelo zarur ast. CHunki Quron tarikhan ba zabon, adabiyoti nasriyu nazmi, ba falsafa, huquq, akhloq va tarzi zindagi: marosimho, urfu odot, sanatu hunar va umuman huviyatu zehniya \mentalitet\-i millali musalmon tasiri beandoza ziyode guzoshtaast va biduni shinokhti .1uron shinokhti kofii in sokhakho jayri imkon ast.

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