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Kayhonshinosi (kosmologiya)va insonshinosii Zardusht.

Dar zardushtiya ofarinishi olam yak davrai komil-iborat az 12 hazor solro dar bar megirad. Dar 3 hazor soli avval Ahuramazdo tarhu namudi hasti olami «mayinu»-ro ofaridaast, ki onro yo olami misol metavon guft. YAne Ahuramazdo nakhust olami idealii mafhumhoi mujarradro ofaridaast. Dar 3 hazor soli bad u olami voqeii ayni, yane hasti: Osmonu Sitoragon va Mohu Oftob va Zaminu giyohu rustani va hayvonotro ofarid. Dar nihoyati kor Ahuramazdo avval barzagov, sipas Kayumars( Gayomartan)ro ofaridaast, ki vay dar Avesto nakhustin sardaftari najodi oriyoniho donista shudaast.

Pas az ofaridani olami moddi quvvai badi Ahriman ba olam vorid megardad va dar barobari hayot margro meorad. Kayumars 30 sol zist va avvalin insone buda, ki bo Ahriman dar nabard buda va dar in nabard kushta shud va pas az margi u, az tukhmai u ki 40 sol dar zamin mahfuz bud, du jufti insoni avvalin- Mashi va Mashyana ruidand va az onho Hushang, asosguzori sulolai peshdodiyon tavallud shud. Zardusht insonro doroi du asl ruh (ravon) va modda meshumorad. Ravon /yo ruh/i odami bar tibqi Hotho makhluqi Ahuro ast. Odam (inson) olami asgar dar jahonihasty ast. Dar u jamei sifoti shashgona, yane: khirad, ravon, iroda, makon, zamon va modda yoft meshavad. In ast, ki on chi jahon ba unvoni yak kull anjom medihad, u meboyad ba unvoni yak juz bitavonad anjom bidihad. Durust ast, ki in talimoti falsafi bo zaboni shoirona, obraznok va ba istioraho bayon gardida, az in ru, ba surathoi mukhtalif tafsir va tabir shudaast.

Zardushtiya dar «Hotho» odamro masuli amolu raftori khud medonad. Odami murakkab az ravon va irodavu modda ast. Iroda ham qudrati onro dorad, ki ba manaviyat bigaroyad va yo garq dar modda va moddiyot shavad.

Zardushtiya yake az avvalin dine meboshad, ki dar on etiqod ba rastokhez (maod)- khayoti pas az marg khele ravshan va mukammal bayon shudaast. Zardushtiya talim medihad, ki bad az ofarinish umri olam 6000 sol ast. Dar se hazorai avval ba navbat nekivu badi -quvvai ahuromazdoi va ahrimani hokimiyat mekunand va nihoyat dar se hazor soli okhir quvvai neki galaba mekunad va saltanati Ahuromazdo barqaror meshavad. Bad az on okhiri olam va rastokhez faro merasad.

Zardushtiya nakhustin dinest, ki tasviri hayoti pas az margi- maodro bo juziyotash: dovarii Hudo ba amoli inson, hukm va podoshi amal va g-ro ba ravshani bayon karda. Muvofiqi zardushtiya pas az sipari shudani chahor ruz, ravoni murda ba sui puli CHanvota, ki guzargohi hamai murdagon ast, ravon meshavad, to dar barobari on pul khudoi Mehr (Mitra) va Srauvsha va Rashn(Rashnu) uro ba dovari mekhonand. Dar dasti rosti Rashnu tarozue hast, ki dar du kaffai on kirdorhoi neku badi uro muqobil guzoshta, mesanjand va dar borai u hukm sodir mekunand. Sipas ravoni murda ba sui puli CHinvat ravon meshavad, to az on bigzarad. Dar Hotho omadaast, ki mardonu zanone, ki dasturhoi diniro rioya mekunand va payravi neki va rosti hastand, « rastagor khohand bud va ba podoshi amali khud dar on sarzamini jovidonii Ahuroi (Hshathra) vorid shavand va hamai onhoe , ki oinpazirand, niz rastagori yoband va man bo hamai onon, surudguyon az puli CHinvata khohem guzasht.» \ Av.YAs.Hot.46\.[1]

Miyoni puli CHanvata tegest teztar az dami shamsher va zeri on joygohi duzakh(drujdimona) ast. CHun ravoni murdagon ba on jo merasad, agar rostkoru rostkirdor boshad, on tegi tez dar barobari vay pahn shuda, guzargohi narme meshavad, lekin agar badkirdor va durugpesha boshad, hamin ki ravoni murda ba on qadam nihad, on teg uro du nim mekunad va az farozi pul ba qari duzakh furu meravad. Dar zardushtiya jannat -joygohi rastagon «Hshathra» va duzakh-saroi jovidonii durug, makoni shikanja va bim «Druju-dimona» va makoni kase, ki neki va badiashon dar du kafai tarozui amolashon barobar boshand, «Hameshakon» ( ba istilohi islomi- Arof) nomida meshavad.

kayhonshinosiDuzakh (Druju-Dimona) muvofiqi tasavvuroti zardushtiya, az tabaqote chand iborat ast, ki poini on dar pointarin umqi zamin (asfalu sofilin)- joygohi zulmat va torik va badbuy ast. Bar hasbi Hotho duzakh yo «khonai durug» makone ast, ki ba nomi «joygohi nokhushi» niz omadaast. Vay dar on joest, ki pindori nobakor va andeshahoi nopok joy dorand, dar sarzamine, ki pur az chirku palidi ast va az umqi zulmoti on faryodu shevan va nolai gam ba gush merasad. Har kas, ki dar on jo biaftad, yakka va tanho ba shikanjai jovidoni giriftor ast.

Ammo dar on sui pul dar «khonainagmot», ki muvofiqi akhbori «Hotho», bihishti barin ast va on makon joygohi khushi, sarzamini nur ast, ki oftob dar on jo gurub nadorad.

Dar falsafai Zardusht rastokhez – hayoti dubora dar okhirat (maod) iborat az ogohii ravon az sirishti voqeii khud ast. Vaqte ki hastii zulmoni va firebandai moddi ba poyon rasid, ravon ba vujudi khud pay mebarad va dar in bedori ba tanosubi amolu kirdor va tamoyuloti guzashtaash duchori dard va yo shodi megardad.

Dar zardushtiya niz mazmun va vojai najotbakhsh yo najotdihanda «sushyonat», ki hamon «maseh-messi» ast joy dorad. Muvofiqi in talimoti se nafar sushyonat dar okhirat zuhur khohand kard. Dar baze usturaho onhoro pisaroni Zardusht guftaand.

Akhlokiyoti zardushtiya – olami botii inson misli har dini digare sanavi meboshad. Zardushtiya asli ziddiyathoi hastiro durust dark karda va ba on bovar ast, ki dar barobari har neki yak badie mavjud ast. CHunon ki dar barobari «Asho» yane rosti va haqiqat «duruj» (durug) va botil joy giriftaast va dar barobari neki- badi, shodi-gam, zindagi- marg, ruz-shab, javoni-piri va gayra. Ba hamin qiyos dar barobari ruhi muqaddasi pok Spenta—Mayinu /ruhi Ahuramazdoi/ ruhi sharir va nopok Angra Mayinu /ruhi Ahrimani/ ba manoi «ravoni palid» joy dorad. Mafhumi «asha»-rosty va «duruch»-durugu riyo du mafhumi kalidii manaviyat va akhloqi zardushtiya meboshand, ki bar poyai «dayana» – vijdon ustvorand.

Usuli akhloqii zardushtiya, ki zamonatu kafolati peshgiri az riyovu durugro dorost bo formulai «Pindori nek, guftori nek va kirdori nek» ifoda yoftaast. Zardushtiya shuuri akhloqii basharro khub halloji karda, zarurati rosti va rostgaroiro dar hama marohili on az andeshavu tafakkur, zehnu shuur to qavlu felu amalro takid kardaast. Inson ham dar botin va ham dar zohir, ham dar hol va ham dar qol boyad nek boshad.

Zardusht talim medihad, ki inson chun az ozodii iroda barkhurdor ast. Odami bayni modda va ruh, neki va badi, fano va jovidoni, zulmat va nur voqe shuda va metavon on chiro, ki dilkhohi ust, intikhob kunad. Agar u fazilatro intikhob kard, boyad doroi andeshai nek, guftori nek va kirdori nek boshad.

Zardusht na tanho boyad pokizagii tan, balki pokiza doshtani andeshavu tafakkur va chahor unsuri asli /yane otash, havo, ob va khok/ro zarur meshumorad.

Inson boyad daler, bojasorat, umedvor, navdust, zahmatkash, balanhimmat, vazifashinos, kheshtandor, boinzibot, boizzati nafs, boistiqomat, furutan, maolaandesh, bovijdon, durustkor, sakhi, vatanparast va gayra boshad.

CHunin ast qonuni akhloqii qadimtarin mutafakkironi eroni, ki dar libosi dinifalsafi bayon shudaast.

Zebopisandy SHuuri akhloqii zardushtiya bo shuuri zeboishinosi va zebopisandii niyogoni mo zich aloqamand ast. Dar Avasto sar to po volotarin namunai shuuri estetiki, ehsos va sitoishi zeboiro darmeyobem. Masalan dar «Hodukht nask» dayin- vijdo dar shabi seyumi marg, pesh az dovari ba «ravoni ashavan» chunin zohir meshavad.

« … sapedadamon ravoni ashavanmardro chunin menamoyad, ki khudro dar miyoni giyohhon va buyhoi khush meyobad va bodi khushbuye az sarzaminihoi nimruzi ba sui vay mevazad. \ Bode\ khushbuytar az hamai digar bodho.

Ashavanmard, ki in bod khushbuyro bo mashomi khesh daryofta /ba khud chunin guyad/:

-In bod, in khushbuytarin bode, ki hargiz monandi onro bo dimogi khud darnayofta budam, az kujo mevazad?

Dar vazishi in bod, «dayan»-i vay ba paykari dushizae bar u namoyon meshavad: dushizai zebo, durakhshon, sapedabozu, nerumand, khushchehra, bo pistonhoi baromada, nekutan, ozoda, va najoda, ki ponzdahsola menamoyad va paykarash hamchandi hama zebotarin ofaridagon zebost.

On goh ravoni ashavanmard, ru ba u kunad va az vay bipursad:

-Kisty eydushizai javon! Ey khushandomtarindushizae, ki mandidaam?

Pas ongoh «dayani» vay, ba du posukh dihad:

– Man «dayan»-i tuam.

\ Pas Ashavan bipursad:\

  • Pas kujost on ki turo dust dosht baroi buzurgy va zeboi va khushbuyy va neruyi piruzu tavonoii \tu\ dar chiragy ba dushman, onchunon ki tu dar chashmi man menamoi?

\Dushiza posukh dihad:»

  • Ey javonmardi nekandesh, nekguftor, nekkirdor va nekdin!

In tuy, ki maro dust doshty baroi buzurgy va neky va zeboy va khushbuyy va nerui piruzmandy va tavonoii \man\ dar chiragy bar dushman, onchunon ki man bar chashmi tu menamoyam. \ Hodukht nask(payvasti YAshtho) 7-12\

Tavajjuh kuned, ki dar in matn maqomi ashovandmard chy buzurg ast va on khud, ki tajassumi zeboist, bo chy tasviru tashbehoti zebo sitoish shudaast. Dar zeboishinosii Avasto dushizai ponzdahsola etaloni zeboy dar barobari sabzavu gulu buyi khush ast.

[1]   Avasto: YAsno, Gotho, YAshtho, Visparad, Hurda Avasto, tarj. va tahqiqi Hoshim Razi.- Tehron: 1984. -S.106.

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