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Loihai innovatsioni hamchun shakli navi tashkili navovari

Mafhumi «loihai innovatsioni»-ro az yakchand nuqtai nazar manidod kardan mumkin ast:

  • hamchun majmui chorabiniho baroi noilshavi ba maqsadhoi innovatsioni;
  • hamchun jarayoni amalisozii faoliyati innovatsioni;
  • hamchun bastai hujjathoe, ki chorabinihoi qaydshudaro asosnok va tavsif mekunad.

Janbahoi zikrshuda ahamiyati loihai innovatsioniro hamchun shakli tashkil va idorai maqsadnoki faoliyati innovatsioni zohir menamoyand. Loihai innovatsioni dar khud nizomi murakkabi jarayonhoro tajassum menamoyad, ki az rui zakhiraho, muhlat va marhilaho ba ham aloqamandand.

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Fishanghoi bozorii hamohangsozii faoliyati shirkatho va har guna nihodho dar sohai korkard, tatbiq va furushi navovari khele nomukammal meboshand. CHunin khususiyati manfb doshtani jarayoni navovariho dar iqtisodiyoti kishvari mo bo muhiti nomusoidi sarmoyaguzori, betashabbussii shirkathoi sanoati va nokifoyagii zakhiraho baroi biznesi khurd tavsif doda meshavad.

YAke az imkoniyathoi beshtar muvofiq baroi tashkil va tatbiqi navovariho nizomi makhsusi idorakuni va mablagguzorii loihahoi innovatsioni meboshad.

Tashakkulyobii loihahoi innovatsioniro baroi halli masalahoi muhimi ilmi-tekhniki, usulhoi kompleksi va nizomi tamin karda metavonand. Dar vobastagi az namudi loiha dar jarayoni bamalbarorii on yakchand muassisahoi (tashkilothoi) loihavi va sanoati, har guna nihodhoi moliyavi, muassisahoi ilmi, jamiyati va davlati, inchunin sokhtorhoi tijorati metavonand ishtirok kunand.

Hamin tavr malum megardad, ki bamalbarorii loihai innovatsioni az tashkilkunandagon va ijrokunandagoni loiha vobastagii ziyod dorad. Gunogunii maqsadu vazifahoi rushdi innovatsioni asosi gunogunshaklii loihahoi innovatsioni va ilmi- tekhnikiro tashkil menamoyad.

Az rui sokhtori tarkibi va vobasta ba khususiyati faoliyati innovatsioni, loihaho ba namudhoi zerin taqsim meshavand:

  1. Loihai tadqiqoti;
  2. Loihai ilmi-tekhniki;
  3. Loihai navsozii dastgohi istehsoli;
  4. Loihai navsozii sistemavii korkhona.

Gayr az in loihai innovatsioni vobasta ba qabuli qaror dar darajai idorakuni (davlati, mintaqavi, korkhonavi), vobasta ba khususiyati maqsadho, namudi navovariho va muhlati bamalbaroii navovariho guruhbandi meshavand.

Korkardi loihai innovatsioni jarayoni darozmuddat va garonarzish meboshad. Az aqidaho (ideya) sar karda to bamalbarorii onhoro dar yak bakhshi alohida tasavvur kardan mumkin ast, ki dar onho se marhilahoi asosi:-pesh az sarmoyaguzori, sarmoyaguzori va bamalbaroriyu natijabardori mavjud ast.

Loihai innovatsioni dar hamai marhilahoi davri innovatsioni bo nomuayyaniho duchor meshavand. Ilova bar in, navovarihoi zinai sanjish va dar istehsolot jorikuniro bomuvaffaqiyat taykarda, metavonad dar bozor qabul nagardand va istehsoli mahsuloti inovatsionii onho man karda shavad.

Hatto loihahoi bomuvaffaqiyat ham kafolati burdborihoro nadorand: yane dar har lahzai davrai hayotashon onho az navovarihoi behtarini raqibon emin nestand. Dar hamin davrahoi hayotii navovari mavjudiyati varianti tagyirotho imkonpazir ast, chunki chunin tagyirotho asosan khosi loihahoi sarmoyaguzori meboshand. Agar badi intikhobi loihai innovatsioni tanho qarori yagona baroi amalkardi on barovarda shavad, pas loihai innovatsioni dar nuqtahoi sershumori nazorati (sanjishi) ba az nav didabaroi va aznavbahodihiro dar davrahoi oyanda talab mekunad.

Navovariho hamesha vobasta ba davrahoi hayoti va talabothoi onho bo varianthoi gunoguni qarorho asos meyoband. Az in sabab oyandabinii jarayoni navovari murakkab va mushkil ast.

In pesh az hama ba bahodihii mutobiqati mahsuloti ba sharoiti bozori va raqobattobovarii oyanda aloqamandi dorad.

Navovariho metavonand bamuvaffaqiyat gardand, agar loihai onho bo amalhoi markazonidashuda va hamohangi tarafhoi manfiatdor- davlat va sokhtori khususi mustahkam gardonida shuda boshand. Baroi korkard va bamalbarorii chunin faoliyati az jihati iqtisodi asosnok va hamohangi stategiyai innovatsioni, tashkili nizomi davlatii ittilooti-«Siyosati innovatsionii sohai voqeii iqtisodiyot» ba maqsad muvofiq ast. istifodai in ba tashkilotu korkhonakhonaho dar samti tashkili strategiya va usulu qodahoi faoliyati innovatsionii sohibkor yori merasonad.

SHarti muhimi amaligardonii loihai innovatsioni intikhobi asosi etimodnoki oyandabini va tahlili navovari meboshad. Inchunin zarur ast, ki baroi ishtirok dar loiha guruhi muttakhasisoni kasbii 209

darajai oli, ijrokunandagoni balandikhtisos, muassis va qarzdihandagoni bomasuliyate jalb karda shavand, ki nisbati anjomi bomuvafaqiyati loihai innovatsioni havasmand boshand. Aksar vaqt hangomi baamalbarorii loihai innovatsioni daryofti modeli asosnok mushkili ejod menamoyad.

Hususiyati digari loihai innovatsioni dar masalai judosozii navovarii alohida hamchun vohidi nazorat va tahlil zohir megardad. Agar dar loihai investitsioni in jarayoni ananavi boshad, on goh judosozii yak navovari az usulhoie ziyodi ba ham aloqamandi faoliyati innovatsioni jarayoni mustaqili murakkab meboshad.

Vobasta ba chorahoi andukhti tajriba miqdori modifikatsiya bo guzashti vaqt kam shuda modeli asosnok paydo megardad. Malum meshavad, ki dar vaqti rushdi davrai hayotii khud naovarihoi alohida manfiati moliyavi ovarda, kuhnashavii manavii on dar vaqti tagyiri modeli asosi imkonpazir megardad.

Pastshavii nomuayyanii tekhniki loihai innovatsioni guvohi on ast, ki tavakkali tijoratiyu moliyavi niz mayl ba pastshavi mekunad. Bartarafsozii tavakkali tekhniki hangomi korkardi yak qator loihahoi muhimi navovari ba on ovarda merasonad, ki kambudihoi dastgohu tekhnologiyai intikhobgardida zohir karda shavand. In kor dar navbati khud masalai mansozii mablagguzoriro ba miyon meorad.

Tavakkali tekhniki va tijoratii loihai innovatsioni dar yagon vobastagii korrelyatsioni qaror nadorand, az in sabab bartarafsozi va ogohsozii khavfi tavakkal boyad az rohhoi empiriki istifoda kard.

Dar intikhobi usuli oyandabini va tahlili boshad mutadi davrai hayotii navovari ahamiyati ziyod dorad. Kutohii davrai hayotii navovariho beshtar az hisobi darozmuddat gardidati Korhoi ilmi- tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori va paydoishi navovarihoi raqobatkunanda tamin megardad.

Ba nazar giriftan zarur ast, ki muvaffaqiyati moliyai ham az sarivaqt ba bozor vorid namudani navovari va ham az darozmuddat budani davrahoi on vobastagi dorad. Hangomi muqoisai samaranokii moliyavii loihai navovari muvaffaqiyat na bar jonibi mahsuloti azkhudkardashuda, balki beshtar ba jonibi navovarihoi ilmtalab ast.

Har yak loihai navovari az maqsadguzori, nishondihandahoi amaligardoni va muayyankunii marhilahoi ijroishi on shuru megardad. Nomuayanii peshbininashavandagii tatqiqothoi bunyodi va nomutobiqatii loiha ba maqsadhoi tashkilot hamchun omilhoi mahdudkunandai ijroishi loiha baromad mekunad. Dar marhilahoi ibtidoi korkard naboyad az juziyothoi amaligardonii loiha, balki mahz ba nishondihandahoi samaranokii on diqqat dodan zarur ast.

Doirai muayyankunii chunin nishondihandaho niz omuzishi daqiq va tahlili jiddiro talab mekunad, chunki muvaffaqiyati har yak loiha az amiqi va amalishavandagii nishondihandahoi asosnokkunandai maqsadhoi tashkilot vobastagi dorad.

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BEUNVON (Bez zaglaviya) Qissai A.P. CHekhov

Dar asri V niz, chun holo, oftob har sahar tulu va har shom gurub mekard. …

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