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Maod chist va manoi on dar Din

(Rastokhez-hayoti pas az marg)

M A O D ( az kal.- arabi -oda- bozgasht, bargasht) etiqod ba namirandagii ruh, hayoti duborai badimargi, okhirat va rastokhez yake az usuli etikodii dinhoi qabl az islomi, alalkhusus dinhoi somi va zardushtiya meboshad. Dar islom niz in talimot maqomi khose dorad va on yake az talimotkhoi aslii on ast. Dar Quron ruzi okhirat, rastokhez bo chandin murodif: «yavmulmaod», «yavmulhisob», «yavmulqiyoma», yavmuddin», «yavmulhasrata», «al-okhirat» «al-goshiya», «a-qoria» «al- hoqa», «as-soa» zikr va chigunagii vuqui on bayon shudaast. Ogohi va ikhtor az ruzi hisobu dovai, sahnahoi azobi duzakh va naimoti jannat, ki insonhoro bad az guzashtan az dodgoh va puli Sirot vobasta ba podoshi amal intizor ast, khelo rangin tasvir shudaand. Alalkhusus surahoi avvali makki molomol az chunin oyatho (oyathoi eskhatalogi)-i tasvirkunandai sahnahoi rohatu azobi jannatu duzakh meboshand. Dar onho takror ba takror mushrikon va kofironro az azobhoi jahannam va otashi duzakh ogoh namuda, ba solehon va muminon az nemathoi jannat mujda medihand.[1]

Muvofiqi tasavvuri umum dar islom alomati nazdik shudani qiyomat asosan iborat az rivoji fasodi akhloqi, faromush shudani faroizi dini va gayra meboshad. Dar ibtido tibqi talimoti islomi, ki ba talimoti dini nasroni shabohat dorad, Dajjol- makhluqi nomalume zuhur mekunad va pas az on Mahdi meoyad va saltanati dajjolro az bayn mebarad va muddate adolatu dinro poydor megardonad. YAke az nishonahoi okhirzamon karnoy yo «suri Isrofil» ast, bad az on hama murdagon az nav zinda khohand shud va dar poi mahkamai ilohi ijtimo khohand kard, to nomai amoli har yakero khonda, tibqi on qazovat karda shavad va gayra.

Hej kitobi muqaddasi digar, on chunon ki dar Quron tavajjuh ba masalai maod shuda, nashudaast. Dar on ziyoda az 1400 oyat metavon paydo kard, ki az maod bahs kardaand. Bahsi maod dar islom khele domanador ast. On haddi aqal shomili masoili zer meboshad: – masalai marg va zindagi; – chigunagii hayoti dubora; masalai jismoni yo ruhoni budani on; – masalai chigunagii dovari va podoshi amal dar okhirat; – masalai holati duzakhu jannat, abadi budani musalmoni murtakibi gunoh shuda, dar on yo muvaqqati budani mujozot, guzashta az in oyo mumini murtaqibi gunohi kabira shuda ba duzakh meravad yo aslan muminu musalmon, sarfi nazar az gunoh duzakhi nest?. Az nigohi falsafi masalai marg va hayot az kuhantarin, purikhtiloftarin va muammoangeztarin masoili umdai dinist. Natijai chunin justujuyho, hayratzadagi, mubohisot va shakku shubha dar mavridi maniyu maqsadi nazariyai dinii masalai hayot va marg ast. Namunai on ruboiyoti olamshumuli hakim Umari Hayyom shuda metavonad. Az jumla u mefarmoyad:

Har chand ki ruyu mui zebost maro,

CHun lola rukhu chu sarv bolost maro,

Malum nashud, ki dar tarabkhonai khok,

Naqqoshi azal bahri chi orost maro.

YO khud

YAk qatra ob budu ba daryo shud,

YAk zarra khok bo zamin yak jo shud

Omad shudani tu andar in olam chist ?

Omad magase padidu nopaydo shud.

Dar in du ruboi muhimtarin masalai insonshinosi yo khudshinosii inson, hadafi ofarinish va maqsadi zindagii inson mavridi suol ast. Dar in olami nopaydokanori kayhon naqshu maqomi insoni kuchaku ojiz chist? Maqsad az ofaridan va boz kushtan niz malum nest, az in ru shoir meguyad:

Jomest, ki aql ofarin mezanadash,

Sad busa zi mehr bar jabin mezanadash

In kuzagari dahr chunin jomi latif,

Mesozadu boz bar zamin mezanadash.

Oyo dar ofarinish, zindagi va margi inson mani, hadaf va maqsade hast yo hej manie nest, hama barabas ast? Ba in savolho insoniyat hamesha javob mejustaast. Tabiist, ki adyon az jumla islom niz ba in savoli mehvarii tarikhi khudshinosii inson javob dodaand. In dinho budaand, ki insoniyatro az yasu navmedi, barabas shumoridani zindagi boz doshtaand. Dar sarchashmahoi islom masalai maod, masalai marg va zindagi, manivu maqsadi hayot vase mavridi bahs qaror girifta ast. In masalaho khamchunin dar doirai falsafai islomi, irfonu tasavvuf niz mavridi bahsu mubohisoti gustarda budaast. Nigohi farhangi islomi ba marg asosan ori az yasu navmedi va tarsu fojia ast. Harchand dar masoili farii maod islom bo dinhoi qabl az khud baze umumiyatho dorad, vale dar masalai falsafai hayot va marg islom az khususiyati khose barkhurdor ast,ki dar dinkhoi digar yo nestand yo khaddi aKal ba in ravshani bayon nashudaand.

Nakhust, on ki Quron khelo vozeh va oshkoro takid mekunad, ki ofarinishi inson va zindagii vay barabas, behuda va behadaf nest. Quron farmudaast: ” Oyo pindoshtaed, ki mo shumoro behuda ofaridaem va bozgashti shumo ba sui mo nest?” ( Q. 23:115 ) Hudi ba miyon guzoshtani masalai hayot va marg va halli nekbinonai on yake az dastovardhoi muhimi islom dar tamadduni basharist. Tibqi falsafai Quron olam va inson barabas ofarida nashudaast va Hudo- ofaridgori marg va hayot az in tariq “SHumo bandagonro meozmoyad, to kadomnekutared”. (Q.67:2)In olam az nazari Quron arsai ozmoish va shinokhti haqiqat, marhillae az marohili duzinnai hayot na anjomi on ast. Insonhoro hayoti jovidonii behtaru volotar az in hayot, yane hamon hayoti jovidonai okhirat-maod intizor ast. Maqomi voloi inson dar Quron hamin ast, ki u baroi hayoti jovidona ofarida shudaast va on hayotest, ki bar ivazi taloshu kushishi u ba dast meoyad va on podoshi amal ast. Mo dar “Islomshinosi” dar in mavrid va masoili qablan zikrshuda mufassaltar bahsu barrasi kardaem, holo dar nihoyati in fasl boz ba yak masala, ki ba asli talimoti islom taalluq dorad va duvvumin asl az usuli dini islom ast tavajjuhi khonandagonro jalb kardan mekhoham va on adli ilohist.

[1] Aksari muhaqqiqonro aqida bar on ast, ki sahnai rastokhez,jannat va duzakh iqtibos az zardushtiya meboshad. Ba aqidai banda in iqtibosho mustaqim nabuda, az tariqi dini yahudiya, ki in unsurho ba on dar zamoni asorati 70-solai Bobul vorid gardida va az on ba kitobi nasroniyon “Ahdi jadid” intiqol yofta ast, dokhil gardidaand yo chunon ki ulamoi din meshumorand in kitobho doroi yak sarchashma meboshand.

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