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Maktabi mashshoiya

Sardaftari falosifai mashshoiya Abuyusuf YAqub ibni Ishoq al- Kindi va barjastatarin simoi on SHaykhurrais Abuali Ibn Sino(980- 1037) meboshand. Maktabi mashshoiyai SHaykhurrais Ibni Sino payravi Arastu /384-322 q. a.m./ ba shumor meravad va nomi in maktab niz az on jihat ast, ki Arastu odat doshtaast, bo shogirdonash hangomi dar bog yo gulgashti Akademiyai Aflotun qadam zadan /ki ba arabi «masho» va yunoni. repra1eyko§ ast/ dars va aqidahoi khudro bayon kunad.

ibn-sinoRavishi falsafii istidlolii mashsho payravoni ziyode dorad va yake az avvalin faylasufi islomii in maktab Abu YUsuf YAqub ibni Ishoq al-Kindi az najodi arab ast. Zamone, ki u ba falsafa mashgul shud, hanuz kase az miyoni muslimin ba falsafa napardokhta bud. Kindi avvalin faylasufi islomist, ki dar mubohisoti falsafii khud taolimi islomro niz peshi nazar doshtaast. YAne u avvalin faylasufest, ki andeshahoi falsafii YUnonro bo andeshahoi islomi sozgor sokht. Badi Kindi namoyandagoni maktabi mashshoiya ba tartib:Abunasri Forobi, SHaykhurrais Abuali ibni Sino, Hoja Nasiruddini Tusi, Mir Domod, Ibni Rushdi Andalusi, Ibn Bojai Andalusi va gayra ba shumor meravand. Maktabi mashshoiya dar shakhsi SHaykhurrais ibni Sino mazhar va kamoli purrai khudro kasb kardaast, az in ru vayro bisyoriho sardaftari in maktab meshumorand.

Abunasri Foroby (870-950)

Hakim Abunasri Forobi yake az maruftarin shakhsiyati maktabi mashshoiya buda, bo nomi muallimi soni, badi Arastu, nom barovarda ast. Abunasri Forobi dar mahali Farobi sohili Sirdaryo, holo qalamravi kishvari Qazoqiston ba dunyo omada ast. Talimoti avvaliyaro dar vatanash va badan dar Dimishqu Bagdod mantiqu ilohiyot va ulumi zamonashro faro megirad. Forobi misli Suqrot mardi khoksoru kambizoate buda, khilvatnishin va porso budaast va dar hashtodsolagi dar Halab-shimoli Suriya vafot kardaast. Guftaand zabonhoi ziyode to 70 zabon medonista, haddi aqal ba forsiyu turki va arabiyu yunoni vorid budaast.

Osori vay khele ziyod (afzun az 40) va gunogunsoha meboshad. Maruftarin osori u iboratand az: «Al-jam bayna rayil-hakimayn», «Ehso-ul-ulum», «Fusus-il-hikam», «Oroi ahli madinai fozila», «As- siyosatul-madaniya» va g-ra.

Vay sharhu ezohoti ziyode ba osori Arastu va Aflotun navishta, kushishi az bayn burdani ikhtilofotu ziddiyatho va oshti dodani in du faylasufi buzurgro az jumla dar kitobi: «Al-jam bayna rayil- hakimayn» kardaast. Dar in kushishhoi khud haddi aqal u du masalaro khub dark kardaast, ki bo vujudi intiqod az musuli Aflotun khudi Arastu dar bayoni surat ba chunin natijae meoyad, ki «suvari ruhoni»e movaroi in olam vujud dorad va ammo dar masalai ofaridani olam az tarafi Hudo Arastu bar vujudi nakhustmuharrik, yane ba vujudi hamon Hudo qoil ast.

Forobi avvalin mutafakkirest, ki dar olami islom dast ba navishtani kitobi doiratulmaorifi (ensiklopediya) bo nomi «Ihsoululum» zadaast, ki pas az u dahho chunin kitob navishta shudand.

Barjastatarin jihati falsafai Forobi mantiq ast. Vay az mantiqshinosoni mashhuri zamonash buda, sharhi ziyode niz ba osori mantiqii Arastu navishtaast. Vale Forobi dar barobari tabligi falsafai yunoni dar inkishof va takmili on niz kushidaast. To chi andoza vorid budani Forobiro ba falsafai yunoni, umuman va alakhusus dar fahmishi falsafai Arasturo az yak naqli Ibni Sino metavon daryoft. Ibni Sino khud naql mekunad, ki u kitobi «Mobaduttabia»-i Arasturo chihil bor khonda nafahmidaast va az fahmi on mayus shuda, to zamone, ki dar bozor kitobchaero ba narkhi se diram ba u peshkash mekunand, ki on hamon «Agrozi kitobi Mobadutabia», navishtai Abunasri Forobi buda va pas az mutoliai on baroi Ibni Sino fahmi kitobi «Mobaduttabia»-i Arastu muyassar gardida. In khud shahodat az on medihad, ki Forobi chi maqomi buzurg va donishi amiqi falsafai YUnonro doshtaast. Zimnan khudi etirofi maqomi Forobi az tarafi Ibni Sino niz yak daleli qote ast, chunki dar sarchashmaho SHaykhurraisro hamchun shakhsi khurdagir va badmuomila bo ulamoi hamasrash tarif kardaand va bo shahodati in sarchashmaho u juz Abunasri Forobi kasero az faylasufoni zamonash etirof nakardaast.

Forobi dar hastishinosi yo falsafai vujud aqida dorad, ki har on chi hast yo vojib-al-vujud ast yo mumkin-al-vujud, juz in du navi vujud vujude nest. Vojib-ul-vujud on ast, ki vujudi uro illate nest, ammo mumkin-al-vujudro illatu sababe hast. CHun har yak mavjude illate dorad va ammo silsilai illat va malulro nametavon beokhir idoma dod, boyad nakhust illate boshad, ki vujudi u az digar mavjude vobasta naboshad va on vojib-ul-vujud ast.

Paydoishi hasti dar falsafai Forobi az tariqi sudur va fayazon ast, ki dar on tasiri falsafai navaflotuni huvaydost va meguyand dar doirai falsafai islomi Forobi avvalin shuda masalai sudurro bayon kardaast. Hudoro inson az tariqi ofaridahoi Vay meshinosad. Surat va musuli hastii ashyo az azal nazdi Hudost va khudo bo taaqqul ba zoti khesh Aqli avvalro sudur mekunad va hamin Aqli avval muharriki Falaki Akbar ast. Az aqli avval ba tadrij dah aqli digar fayazon mekunand, ki ba tartibi afloki kayhonist va aqli dahum bo suduri falaki qamar silsilai afloki osmoni takmil va sayri olami zamini ogoz va bo zuhuri inson ki khulosai olami koinot ast in jarayoni takomul ba kamoli khud merasad.

Bahsi aqlho dar falsafai Forobi az jolibtarin va gustardatarin buhus dar doirai falsafai islomi meboshad. Vay misli Arastu az aqli bilquvva, aqli bilfel, aqli mustafod va aqli faol bahs mekunad. Forobi aqlro tariqi mutlaqi rasidan ba saodat medonad, ki iborat az orzui rasidan ba martabai aqli faol va bahramand shudan az on ast, ki lozimai on se nav amal ast: irodi, aqloni va jismoni, ki mutobiqi se nav fazilat: akhloqi, aqli va sinoi meboshad.

Afkori falsafii Forobi kullan doroi yak payvasti nogusastanist. Bayni mobaduttabia (metafizika)i u va oroi ijtimoiyu siyosii u dar «madinai fozila»i ormoniash aloqamandii mantiqi mavjud ast. Hizmati Forobi dar siyosati madani va korkardi nazariyai kishvar- shahri ormoni yo «madini fozila» benihoyat kalon ast.

SHaykhurrais Abuali ibni Sino (980-1037) Maktabi mashshoiya dar shakhsi SHaykhurrais Abuali ibni Sino mazhar va kamoli purrai khudro kasb kardaast, az in ru vayro bisyoriho sardaftari in maktab meshumorand. Taykhurrais Ibni Sino az payravoni maktabi Arastu buda, dar takmilu rushdi on naqshi muassire guzoshtaast.

Osori falsafii Taykhurrais khele ziyodand, Muhammad Rashshod 104 nomgu az onhoro dar kitobi khud «Falsafa az ogozi tarikh» yod kardaast, ki muhimtarini onho: «Kitob-ash-shifo», «Donishnoma», «An-najot», «Ishorot va tanbehot», «Mabda va maod», «Al-hikmat-ul-mashriqiya» va dar tibb kitobi doiratulmaorifii «Al-qonun» meboshand.

Taykhurrais Abuali Ibni Sino dar tamomi mavzuoti falsafi: mantiq, ilohiyot (metafizika), ilmi nafs, tabiiyot, falakiyot, falsafai ishroq va irfon, tadbiri manzil va g-ra ba juz ilmi siyosat va davlatdori aqida bayon kardaast. YAgona kambudii Taykhurrais dar muqoisa bo Aflotunu Arastu va Forobi on ast, ki dar osori u bahshoi «madinat-ul-fozila», yane talimoti siyosivu davlatdorii ormoni chun dar in se nafar nestand. Illati sarfi nazar kardani in mavzu ravshan nest va tahqiqi on niz az havsalai in kitob berun ast.

Taykhurrais ilohiyotro misli Forobi az isboti «Vojib-al-vujud» (on mavjude, ki hastiash – vujudash hatmi, zaruri-vojib ast) ogoz mekunad. Vay mavjudotro ba du qismat: «Vojib-al- vujud» va «mumkin- al-vujud» taqsim mekunad. Vay meguyad: «har vujude yo vojib ast yo mumkin, agar vojib boshad, vujudi Vojib-al-vujud durust ast va on matlubi most va agar mumkin boshad, mo oshkor mekunem, ki mumkin saranjomi vujudash ba Vojib-ul-vujud muntahi meshavad». Mumkin-al- vujud dar tarifi u chize ast, ki muhtoji yak illati khoriji ast, ki uro az quvva ba fel darorad yo ejod kunad. Vojib-al-vujud hamon Hudo ast, ki ba zoti Hud mavjud ast va niyoz ba musabbibe va yo muvajjide khorij az khud nadorad. In nazariya marbut ba masalai daryofti sari zanjiri illatu malul dar hasti meboshad.

Vojib-al-vujud – Hudoi falsafii SHaykhurrais misli Hudoi adyon doroi sifot meboshad, ki onro u ba tafsil barrasi karda va on az doirai ilohiyoti islom (agar on erodi Muhammad Gazzoliro ba u dar mavridi ogohii Hudo az kulliyot va juziyot sarfi nazar kunem) berun nest. Ammo dar mavridi paydoishi olam bayni tasavvuroti dini va talimoti falsafii Taykhurrais tafovut ast. Taykhurrais dar in mavrid misli Forobi oid ba sudur (yo khalq, ibdo va inbijos-tarkish) bahs mekunad va hamchunon, ki dar nazariyai Forobi didem, avvalin sudur Aqli avval va sipas ba tartib dah aqli digar va «Nafsi falak» sudur meshavad. Hulosa, Taykhurrais hastiro ba du qismi tazzod: olami afloki komil va olami moddai noqis taqsim kardaast va nafsi insoni komilro vositai payvasti in du olam meshumorad.

Dar mavridi modda va surat va intiqodi Aflotun Ibni Sino az Arastu payravi karda, vale bar khilofi Arastu suratro muqaddam ba hayulo medonad va baroi jami miyoni surat va modda baroi «Vohibussuvar» – bakhshandai surat joy kholi mekunad.

SHaykhurrais Abuali Ibni Sino dar avval, der gohe sakht zeri tasiri falsafai mashshoiyai yunoni buda, dar rivoji on khizmati ziyode kardaast, ammo dar marhalahoi okhiri umrash ba korkardi namunae az falsafai sharqi-«hikmati ishroq» kushidaast, badan in tarhi uro faylasufi digari eroni Suhravardi idoma dod.

Mo baqiyai nukoti asosii falsafai SHaykhurraisro az mavqei falsafai arastui (az jumla nazari u dar mavridi tarif va tabaqabandii hikmat, javhar va araz, hayulo va surat, aqsomi harakat) dar joyhoi lozima, yodovari khohem kard.[1] Injo yak nigohi zudguzare ba hamin jihati okhiri talimoti SHaykhurrais khohem kard, ki kamtar mavridi tavajjuhi muhaqqiqin qaror giriftaast.[2]

Afkori tozai SHaykhurrais dar «Kitobi hikmat-ul-mashriqiya» va yaqinan dar risolai «Fi mohiyat-il-ishq» ifoda yoftaast. Mutaassifona, az kitobi avval juz chand bakhshe boqi namondaast, ammo risola «Dar mohiyati ishq» to ba mo rasida va metavon az on to andozae didi tozai SHaykhurraisro nazdik ba falsafai ishroqiya daryoft.[3]

Dar in risola SHaykhulrais Ibni Sino ishqro justujui zeboi menomad. Ormonjuii inson hamon harakati ishq ast ba sui zeboi va zeboi hamon kamol ast. Dar robita ba hamin mavzu u hastiro ba se daraja yo martaba qismat namuda, ki iboratand az:

  • on chi dar nihoyati kamol ast;
  • on chi dar nihoyati nuqs ast;
  • on chi mo bayni in dust.

Ammo martabai seyumi hasti voqeiyat nadorad, zero ki on chi hast yo ba zarurat ba kamol rasida ast yo az nuqs ba kamol meravad. Muvofiqi in nazariyai Ibni Sino hama hasti: chi hayulo (vay modda hayuloro ba zani zisht monand kardaast, ki to zishtii khudro bipushad hamesha mekushad az surat judo nashavad va mayl ba surat dorad), chi nabotu chi hayvonu chi inson, hama gurez az nuqson va mayli doimii tabii ba kamol dorand. Vay bad az tavzehi in matlab dar nabot hayvon va inson, mayl ba kamolro dar asari in ishqi garizii illati hama hasti meshumorad. In jo yak kushishi ba ham payvastani falsafai mashshoiya (Arastu) bo irfonu zavq shudaast va on az falsafai davrai navi avrupoi mavzui maqomi iroda dar oroi Artur SHopenhauerro ba yod meorad.

Imom Gazzoli Abuhomid Muhammad (1059-1111) az barjastatarin mutakallimonfaylasufoni mazhabii islom meboshad, ki chi dar SHarq va chi dar Garb shuhrat yofta. Naqshi Gazzoli dar tarikhu dinu falsafai islom nihoyat buzurg ast. U dar zamone zuhur kard, ki olami masehi az yak taraf bo janghoi salibi va az tarafi digar noayon bo rohi mafkuravi avvalin hujumi domanadori khudro, jihati baham poshidani olami islom shuru karda bud. Dar nazdi Gazzoli muhimtarin vazifa meistod, ki on barobar bo kori yak sipohi azime dar maydoni muhoribai jangi bud va on iborat az zarba zadan ba istiloi farhangii olami masehi az tariqi vorid kardani falsafai yunonimaob bud. U in vazifaro sarbalandona ijro kard va zarbai muhlike ba paykarai falsafai yunonimashrab vorid namud, ki der muddate on natavonist az in zarba ba khud oyad.

Gazzoli osori ziyode talif namuda, ki miqdori onho bolig ba 500 asar ast. Maruftarin kitobhoi u: «Ehyo-al-ulum ad-din» va mukhtasari forsii on «Kimyoi saodat», «Al-munqiz min-az-zalol», «Maqosid al- falosifa» va «Tahofut-al-falosifa» meboshand.

Imom Gazzoli, ki ba mantiq va ilmi kalom oshnoi va mahorat dosht dar zarfi kamtar az 3 sol be ustod falsafaro hangomi dar Bagdod tahsil kardanash faro girift va dar se kitobi okhirin yodshudai bolo nazariyoti onhoro barrasii intiqodi namud. Malum ast, ki intiqodi falsafa biduni donistani falsafa nameshavad. Vale, masala dar sari chigunagii intiqodotand, oyo onho bo usuli marifati falsafiand yo mabni ba usuli raddiyahoi dini? Abuhomid Gazzoli nazari faylasufonro dar «Tahofut-al-falosifa» dar bist masala bidat va dar se masala ba kufr mahkum mekunad.

Avvalan, u faylasufonro ba se dasta-guruh: dahriyon, tabiiyon, ilohiyon taqsim namuda, dahriyonro bo ahli zindiqa (khudonoshinoson- ateistho) barobar karda, ki Hudoro inkor mekunand va olamro mavjud ba nafsi khesh medonand; tabiiyonro, ki vujudi ofaridgori hakimro qabud dorand, vale okhiratro inkor mekunand, Gazzoli onhoro bo vujudi imonashon ba Hudo, ba qatori ahli zanodiq barshumorida; ilohiyon az nazari u, onhoe hastand, ki dar qatori onho Suqrot, Aflotun va Arastu va az miyoni payravi onho Abunasri Forobi va Ibni Sino niz hastand, khud bar ziddi dahriyon va tabiiyon raddiyaho navishtaand va az onho bezori justaand. Bo vujudi in, onhoro niz dar se masala gumroh va takfir karda. On se masala: yake qadimii olam, digare ruhoni budani mukofoti amal dar okhirat, na jismoni va olim budani Hudo ba kulliyot, na ba juziyot ast.

Ibni Rushd (1126-1198) az maruftarin faylasufoni islomii Andaluziyai Ispaniya meboshad, ki tasiri amiqe dar afkori falsafii SHarqu Garb guzoshtaast. Az asri HSH-H^1 dar Avrupo tahti tasiri bevositai talimoti Ibni Rushd (Averroes) raviyai marufe dar falsafa bo nomi «averroizm» ba vujud omada, aksariyati mutafakkironi qabl az Ehyo va davrai Ehyo (asri 13 Siger Brabandskiy va Boetsiy Dakiyskiy, a. 14 Jan Janden, a. 1416 namoyandagoni maktabi Paduani, Donishgohi Bolonskiy, P. Pompanatsi, Jordano Bruno, Piko della Mirandola)ro tahti tasir doshta ast.

Ibni Rushd dar barobari difo az falsafai mashshoiya, avvalin shuda kushishi tayini hudud va doirai mavzuoti din va falsafaro kardaast, ki on bo nomi «haqiqati dugona» maruf ast.[4] Muvofiqi in nazariya nohaqiqati ilohiyoti-dini metavonad dar falsafa haqiqat boshad va baraks, nohaqiqati falsafi metavonad dar ilohiyotu din haqiqat boshad. To Ibni Rushd din va falsafa du jabhai ba ham mukholif va tazzod bud. Faylasufon asosan aqoidi khudro tanho bo istidloloti aqlivu mantiqi sobit mekardand, tavajjuhi kamtare ba makhazu sarchashmahoi dini doshtand va mekhostand baroi bahs mazhabiyonro ba marzi mantiqu aql kashand, ki imkonnopazir bud. Ibni Rushd in sunnatro vayron karda, khud ba marzi jabhai mukholif (din) daromad va dar asosi iqtibos az oyoti Quron va hadisho, bo istifoda az tavil sobit kard, ki bayni dinu falsafa ziddiyati oshtinopazire nest.

5.7. Maktabhoi falsafii badi Ibni Sino

Maktabi ishroq. CHunon ki qablan guftem hanuz SHaykhurrais Ibni Sino fikri bunyodi falsafai sharqiro karda bud. Du nasl bad az u SHaykh SHahobiddin Suhravardi (maqtul 1191) in fikri uro jomai amal pushonid.

Maktabi ishroqii SHaykh SHahobiddin Suhravardi payravi Aflotun \ 427-347 q.a.m.\ ba shumor meravand. Tafovuti asli va javharii ravishi ishroqi va mashshoi in ast, ki dar ravishi ishroqi baroi tahqiq dar masoili falsafi va makhsusan “hikmati ilohi” tanho istidlol va tafakkuri aqliro kofi nameshumorand balki suluki qalbi va mujohidoti nafs va tasfiya- poksozii onro niz zaruri va lozim medonand dar surate, ki ravishi mashshoi tanho takya bar istidlol dorad. Albatta, bahshoe niz dar mavridi on, ki dar voqe bayni ravishi arastui va aflotuni tafovute buda yo nabuda hastand, ki az havsalai in muqaddima berun ast.

Maktabi ishroqi nazar ba mashshoiya doirai mahdudtare dorad. Bad az SHahobuddini Suhravardi az payravoni in maktab Qutbuddini SHerozi yod shudaast.

HIKMATI MUTAOLIYA, yake digar az maktabi falsafii islomi ast, ki az tarafi mardi eronie bo nomi Sadr-ul-Mutaolihin SHerozi (vaf. s.1050 h.q.) poyaguzori shud. Sadr-ul-Mutaolihin rasman falsafai khudro hikmati mutaoliya khond va bo hamin nom mashhur shud. Kalimai hikmati mutaoliya az tarafi SHaykhurrais Abuali Sino niz dar kitobi “Ishorot va tanbehot” ba kor raftaast vale Sadrulmutaollihin rasman falsafai khudro hkmati mutaoliya khond va bo hamin nom mashhur shud. Hikmati mutaoliya az lihozi ravish shabehi maktabi ishroqist, yane ba istidlol va kashfu shuhud dar yakjoyagi etiqod dorad, vale az nazari usul va az nazari natijagiri tafovut dorad. Dar falsafai Sadrulmutaollihin bisyore az ikhtilofoti bayni mashsho va ishroq yo falsafa va irfon, falsafa va kalom hal shudaast, vale bo vujudi in on falsafai iltiqoti (eklektiki) nest, balki yak nizomi khosi falsafi ast.

Hulosai ravishho va dastovardhoi falsafai asrhoi miyona

Dar asrhoi miyona chi dar SHarqi islomi va aksaran dar Garbi masehi, masalahoi asosii falsafi iborat budand az:

  • ba khizmatgori ilohiyot tabdil dodani falsafa va isboti falsafi (ontologi, kosmologi va teleologi)-i hastii Hudo;
  • bahshoi qidam va yo hodis budani olam;
  • yagonagii tabiat va Hudo – nazariyai vahdati vuchud;
  • bahs dar atrofi jabr va ikhtiyor, ozodi va masuliyati inson;
  • kushishi oshti dodani din va falsafa va roh kushodan ba ilmu falsafa – nazariyai haqiqati dugona;
  • tanosubi ashyo va mafhumi onho: nominalizm va realizm;

[1]   Mufassal dar borai falsafai Ibni Sino nig.: M.Dinorshoev, Falsafai zamoni feodalizm. // dar kitobi «Ocherkhoi tarikhi falsafa» va hamchunin kitobi u «Naturfilosofiya Ibn Sini», Dushanbe: Donish. -1985.

[2]   Man tanho dar kitobi «Mabonii falsafa», talifi duktur Osifa Osifi. 1370. S.220221 bayoni nazari Ibni Sinoro dar asosi in risola didam.

[3]  Abuali Ibn Sino. Os. munt.J.2. -Dushanbe: Irfon. 1983. -S. 29-44.

[4]   Dar mavridi intiqodi Ibni Rushd az M. Gazzoli va difoi falsafai mashshoiya nig.: M.Dinorshoev, Falsafai zamoni feodalizm. //dar kitobi «Ocherkhoi tarikhi falsafa». S.60-64.

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