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Marketingi navovarihoi tekhnologi va ikhtiroot

Miqdori asosii navovariho bevosita dar korkhonai sanoati ba vujud ovarda meshavand. In bo yak qator sababho aloqamand ast. Pesh az hama, dar korkhonaho miqdori ziyodi kadrhoi muhandisi-tekhniki va ilmi tamazkur doda shudaast.

Duyum, korkhonaho, doroi zaminai ozmoishi-tajribavi buda, korkardhoi khudro dar shakli moddi tajassum menamoyand va bo hamin ba tatbiqi bomuvaffaqiyati onho musoidat mekunand.

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Seyum, korkhona nazar ba muassisai ilmi-tekhniki talaboti bozorro behtar medonad, ki in ham ba ravandi tatbiq tasiri musbi merasonad. CHahorum, bisyor korkhonaho yakjoya bo muhandisoni zavodi va olimoni pajuhishgohho ijro karda meshavand, ki biduni in olimon nametavonistand aqidahoi khudro amali sozand, ki naqshi istehsolotro dar ravandi innovatsioni baland mebardorad.

Korkhona, ravandi innovatsioniro ba amal barovarda, tekhnologiyai navro bunyod namuda, nazar ba muassisai ilmi-tekhniki, chun qoida, maqsadi ba berun furukhtani natoiji korkardro dar pesh nameguzorad.

Ba istehsoloti khudi jori namudani onho asosi ast. Ammo dar rafti tadqiqot va korkard holathoe metavonand paydo shavand vaqte, ki:

  • natijai ilovagii ba naqsha giriftanashudai korhoi ilmi- tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori, ki tatbiqi istehsoliash dar korkhona tahiyagar peshbini nashudaast, paydo shavad;
  • dar asosi guzaronidani korhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti va tajribaviyu konstruktori natijae metavonad paydo va ba dast oyad, ki az rui imkoniyati moliyavi dar korkhona tahiyagar nametavonad jori namoyad;
  • mahsul va tekhnologiyai navi ba amal ovardashuda ozmoishi tijoratii bomuvaffaqiyatro guzaronand, maylu khohishi korkhonahoi onhoro bedor kunad;
  • korkhona tekhnologiyaro tahiya mesozad, vayro istifoda mekunad, vale baroi ishtirok dar tahiya va istehsoli qismatnok, korkhonahoi digarro jalb menamoyad, yakjoya bo onho furushi in tekhnologiyaro ba amal mebarorad.

Dar holathoi nombarshuda va digar holatho korkhona metavonad furushi tekhnologiyaro barobari furushi mahsuloti asosii khudash ba roh monad. Holati «biznesi dugonagi» ba vujud meoyad.

Agar muaasisai ilmi-tekhnikii tibqi korkardi tadqiqotbaranda talaboti darkhostkunandagoni nerumandro (potensialiro) qablan omuzad, on goh korkhona, chi tavre ki zakr karda shud, ba istifodai dokhilii natijahoi tadqiqoti guzaronidashavanda ruy ovardaast. Az tarafi korkhona furukhtani mahsuloti ilmi-tekhniki justujui darkhostkunandaro hamono badi ba dast ovardani natijai ilmi (garchande ki hamchun istisno varianthoi digar niz joy doshta metavonand) dar nazar dorad.

Zimnan, baroi muassisai ilmi – tekhniki darkhostkunanda (farmoishgar) ba haysi raqibi nerumand (potensiali) kamtar va ba manoi digar baromad mekunad. Baroi muassisai ilmi-tekhniki raqib khadamoti muhandisii korkhona meboshad, ki metavonad mustaqilona tadqiqot barad va bo halli arsai faoliyati muassisaro tang mesozad. Raqib baroi korkhona-in khudi hamon korkhonaest, ki istehsoli mahsulotro ogoz namoyad va qismi muayyani bozorro dar davrai jori va oyanda kashida girad.

Tajribai jahoni intikhoban majmui vasei olothoi iqtisodii dar tajriba ozmudashudaro peshnihod mekunad, ki bo kumaki onho ravandi innovatsioniro dar sathoi bolo va poyon metavon idora kard. Ammo boyad ba nazar girift, ki khudi hamin yak olot dar sharoiti mukhtalifi iqtisodi komilan harkhel amal mekunad.

Holo dar Tojikiston munosibothoi molumulki va munosibathoi shakhsii gayrimolumulkii bo onho aloqamandro, ki binobar ofaridan, hifzi huquqi va istifodabarii ikhtiroot dar asosi qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai ikhtiro» (28 fevrali soli 2004, №17) tanzim karda meshavand. Dar qonuni mazkur omadaast, ki «ikhtiro in ofaridai navi tekhnikie, ki imkoniyat medihad masalahoi mushakhkhasi istehsolot va sohahoi digari faoliyati inson hal karda meshavand».

Muassisai davlatii markazi millii patentu ittilootii Vazorati rushdi iqtisod va savdoi Jumhurii Tojikiston oid ba hifzi obekthoi molikiyati sanoati amalgardonii siyosati yagonai davlatiro dar sohai hifzi huquqii obekthoi molikiyati sanoattamin menamoyad.

Huquq ba ikhtiroot az jonibi davlat hifz karda shuda, bo patentva yo nakhustpatent baroi ikhtiro hamchun hujjathoi muhofizati tasdiq karda meshavad. Hujjati muhofizati avvaliyat, muallifi vahuquqi istisnoii istifodabarii ikhtiroro tasdiq mekunad.

Ikhtiro, namunahoi sanoati, tamgai molho, nishonai khizmatrasoni, nomgui tijorati va ba in monand nishonaho ba sifati molikiyati sanoati ba tarkibi obekthoi molikiyati zehni dokhil meshavand, vale doroi mekhanizmhoi tartiboti huquqii digar meboshand.

Molikiyati zehni hamchun instituti huquqi doroi darajahoi zarurii zerin meboshad: obekti molikiyat, subekti huquq ba molikiyati, mazmuni huquq ba malikiyat. Mekhanizmi asosii huquqii savdo molikiyati sanoati, amaliyoti ijozatnomadihi (lisenziya) meboshad. Onho az nigohi daromadnokii baland farq mekunand va imkon medihand, ki yak qismi korkhonaho kharojothoi khudro ba korhoi ilmi-tatqiqoti va tajribavi-loihakashi sarf namoyand va digaron ba dast ovardani navgoniho bo sharoithoi musoid intizorand.

Ijozatnoma-in rukhsat dodan baroi istifodabari az tarafi shakhsoni huquqi yo voqei, ikhtiroot, tekhnologiyaho, donishhoi tekhniki va tajribai istehsoli, siri istehsoli, nishonai savdo, akhbori tijorati yo malumoti digar dar muhlati muayyangardida, dar doirai sharthoi dar qarordod nishon dodashuda baroi mukofoti munosib meboshad.

Ijozatnomadihi dar asosi qarordodi tarafhoi manfiatdor ba amal ovarda meshavad va ijozat baroi ijroi faoliyati istehsoli, ki maqsad on ba dast ovardani foida hangomi istehsoli mahsulot bo istifodai obekthoi molikiyati sanoati yo dar oyanda tahvil dodani huquqho ba obekti mazkur ba shakhsoni seyum meboshad.

Dodani ijozatnoma amaliyoti tijorati meboshad va dar on ijozatnomagir va ijozatdihanda ishtirok menamoyand.

Ijozatnomadeh (lisenziar) dar davomi muhlati shartnoma va hamchunin himoyai manfiathoi ijozatnomagir (litsenziat) hangomi gayriqonuni istifodabarii istehsolot az tarafi shakhsoni digar uhdadorihoi heshro ba jo meovarad.

Intikhobi namunai ijozatnoma ba hajmi bozor, khususiyati tekhnologi va vaziyati bozor vobasta meboshad. Dar mamlakathoi doroi bozori khurd dokhili odatan ijozatnomai istisnoi doda meshavad, chunki yakchand ijozatnomagirho ba raqobat pardokhta narkhi mahsulotro past namoyand, ki on ba hajmi mukofoti ijozatnomadeh tasir merasonad. Ba gayr az in ijoistisnoi ba molhoi muhlatashon kuhnashuda doda meshavad.

Etirofi ikhtiro hamchun obekti molikiyati zehni zaminai peshakiro dar takmilyobii munosibathoi bozori dar bayni sohai ilm va istehsolot, hamchunin prinsipho va tarzhoi mablagguzorii tadqiqothoyu korkardi mahsulotro faroham meovarad.

Gunjoishi bozori ikhtiroot az talaboti qabuli kharidoroni imkonpazir vobasta meboshad va peshnihodoti on az tarafi nerui ilmi-tekhnikii tashkilothoi ilmi va korkhonahoi sanoati muayyan karda meshavand. Bozori ikhtiroot az bozori mehnat, zakhirahoi moddi, bozori mablagguzori az on farq menamoyad, ki:

  • ikhtiro hamchun mol huquqi imtiyoznoki sohibi onro dar nazar dorad-shakhse, ki doroi patent baroi ikhtiro meboshad;
  • peshnihodi ikhtiro chun qoida talabotro ziyod menamoyad, ammo bozornoguzori dar in holat ba amal nameoyad, ki on raqobatnokii oyandai innovatsiyahoi ilmi-tekhnikiro dar bozor baland mebardorad;
  • bo vobastai furushi ikhtiroot mubodilai molu pul, huquqi tijorati molikiyati zehni ba amal meoyad, ki on etirofi arzishi mehnati aqloni, ki baroi istehsoli danishhoi nav sarf gardidaast, shahodat medihad;
  • dar sharoithoi muayyan az nuqtai nazari iqtisodi kharidori namudani ikhtiroho, patentho va litsenziyaho nazar ba sokhtani tekhnologiyahoi nav manfiatovar meboshad.

Masalan YAponiya dar muddati duru daroz hamasola 300mln. dollar ba kharidori namudani patentho, litsenziyaho sarf namud, ki dar okhir 10-12mlrd. dollar foida az furushi mahsuloti tayyor ba dast ovard. Dar natijai taraqqiyoti ilmu tekhnika YAponiya be doshtani akademiyai fanho, maktabhoi mashhuri ilmi va instituthoi tadqiqoti ba komiyobihoi buzurg noil gardid.

Savdoi baynalkhalqi bo ijozatnoma yake az namudhoi asosii hamkorihoi ilmi- tekhniki ba hisob meravad. Bo vujudi on holo savdo ba patent dar bozori jahoni naqshi nochizero bozi menamoyad, zero giriftani patent az sababi dushvorii tekhnologi nametavonad istifodai bosurat va samaranoki ikhtirootro tamin namoyad.

Istehsoli mahsuloti patentkunonidashuda amalan be barobar tahvil dodani siri istehsolot va rasonidani kumaki tekhniki dar azkhudkunii ikhtirooti patentkunonidashuda gayri imkon meboshad.

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

jubron-xalil

Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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