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Mavqei Namoz hamchun ibodat dar Islom

Ibodat dar islom asosan ruknhoi duvvum, seyum va panjumi arkoni onro tashkil mekunad.On iborat az panj vaqt namoz guzoshtan dar tuli yak shabonaruz, dar mohi ramazon 30 ruz ruza doshtan va anjom dodani hajji “Honai Hudo” yane ziyorati Kaba meboshad. Okhirin vobasta az imkoniyati moli va sharoit ast. Falsafai ibodat dar islom hanuz ba tarzi boyadu shoyad tahqiqu barrasi nashudaast. Tanho az ilohiyoti islomi chunin barmeoyad, ki parvardigor az on, yane ibodati mumin beniyoz ast, chun az on hej sudu ziyone nadorad, sudu ziyon az anjom dodan yo nadodani on ba inson merasad. Ibodat pesh az hama izhori bandagi va furutani va zikru sitoishi Pqarvardigor ast.

namozDar tashakkuli nizomi ibodati islom, ba aqidai islomshinoson, tasiri dinhi to islomi ziyodand. Dar avval Muhammad (s) baze ibodati dinhoi nasroni va yahudiro rioya kardaast. Masalan, dar solhoi yakum va duyumi hijrat Muhammad (s) va ummati u ruzai yahudiyon va nasroniyonro megiriftand va inchunin hangomi namoz ruy ba sui Baytulmuqaddas (Ierusalim) mekardand.

CHunon, ki baze sharqshinoson iddao dorand dar avval Muhammad(s) chandon ravshan khudro asosguzori dini nav nameshumorad, vay dar avval gumon mekardaast, ki yak muslih- navovare dar dini nasronh yo yahudi meboshad. Daleli in, ba qavli onho, baze guftahoi khudi u meboshand. Masalan, ishora ba on hadise kardaand, ki dar on omada: “Inni jitu laakmaltu diynikum” -Man omadam, to ki dini shumoro takmil kunam”. Hamchunin dar tashakkuli ibodathoi islomi, masalan, dar namozi panjvaqta vujudi tasiri bevositai dini zardushtiyaro niz takid kardaand.

Harchand islom dar ilohiyot ba sathi falsafai nob-goyai sof tajridii Hudo, ki nazdik ba “ideyai mutlaq”,”ruhi absolyuti”-i Hegel, rasida boshad ham,dar sohai ibodat tamomi khususiyoti dinhoi (peshina)-ro hifz kardaast. Muhammad(s) chunon ki dar Quron omadaast dar avvalhoi ba Madina omadanash meguyad: “Va lillohi al mashriqu val-magribu fa-ayna mo tuvallu fasamu vajkhul-loha inn- Allaha vosiun alimun” “Mashriq va Magrib (hardu) mulki Hudost, pas ba har tarafe, ki ruy kuned, ba sui Hudo ruy ovarded, Hudo ba hama muhit (va ba har chiz) donost”. In manoi onro dorad, ki mumin ba har suy, ki nigarad ru ba Hudo dorad, ba iborai digar, qiblai mumin hamon ast.

Vale badan mebinem, ki zaruriyathoi siyosi va sunnathoi qavmii arabi bar Muhammad (s) bolo megirand va u hangomi namoz ru ba tarafi Kaba (shahri Makka) kardanro talab mekunad. Kabaro, ki qabl az islom butkhonai mushrikon buda “beytil” khonai khudo nom dosht «Baybuolloh» nomidan va tarikhi bunyodi onro ba risolati hazrati Ibrohim payvastand. Hatto asositarin vasanro, ki butparaston “hajar-ul-asvad”- sangi siyoh menomidand, dar on hamchun shaoyir- mazhri parastish nigoh medorad. In guzasht ba butparasti bud yo onro zaruriyat va khususiyati parastishi dini va fishori anana takozo mekard? Ba javobi in savol metavon haminro guft, ki in guzasht az taqozoi khususiyati khudi din ast. CHunki baroi parastish va ibodati dini pesh az hama obekti aniq, mazhari mushakhkhasi ayni zarur ast va yake az tafovuthoi asosii din az idealizmi falsafi niz dar hamin ast. Oyo in ziddiyati jddie bayni talimot oid ba Hudoi yagonai dar hama jo hoziru nozir, ki maqomu nishemanash arshu kursi meboshad va vujudi tasavvuroti omiyonai butparasti khonai Hudo “baytil” nest?

Dar Quron (surai al- Haii, oyati 32,36)in ziddiyat: parastishi sangi siyoh va ziyorati Kabaro bo bayoni on, ki in hama shaoir (yane marosimi parastish)i khudoyand hal karda meshavand. In bud ki Payombar khonai Kabaro hamchunin khonai Hudo (ibodatgohe), ki onro Ibrohim (Halilulloh dustdoshta, muhibi Hudo)bino karda tavzeh doda, hamchun qiblai musalmononro asosnok namud.

CHunon ki zikr shud, dar shariati islom maqomu mavqei ibodat va az jumla maqomu mavqei namoz khelo baland ast. Dar Quron har jo ki ibodathoro zikr namuda, namozro muqaddam ovardaast. CHunonchi mefarmoyad: “Aqimussalota va utuaz-zakota”(,1. surai 2:43) Dar hadis Payoambari islom(s) farmuda:”As-salotu imodu- d-din va min aqomaho fa-qad aqoma dini fa man tarakaho fa-qad hadama dina”- “Namoz sutuni din ast va har kas onro ba po dorad, dinro ba po dorad va har kas onro tark kunad dinro tark kardaast.”

Pas namoz (ba arabi.as salot) nakhustin marosimi ibodatii islom ast. Binoi islom, chunon ki guftem bar panj rukn ustuvor ast. Namoz dar binoi islom rukni duvvum va asosi ba shumor meravad. Dar mavridi falsafai namoz ulamoi islom bisyor navishtaand. On pesh az hama iqror ba bandagi va hamdu siposguzorii inson nisbat ba kholiq ba parvardigori khud ast. Namoz az nigokhi falsafai din vositai asosii barqarorii irtiboti dindor ba khudost, ki dar on har shakhs arzu niyozi khudro ba Hudo bayon mekunad. Vale dar namozi islom dar khudi dokhili on masalai khostu taqozoi in yo on niyozu ehtiyoi va darkhoste juz dar okhiri namoz, nest, balki tanho sitoishu hamdi parvardigor va khonishi in yo on surai Quron meboshad.

Az nazari manaviyu ravoni (psikhologi) namoz rohi khelo muhimi taskini ruhiyu ravoni, yane tazkiyavu tasfiyai nafs va poksozii manaviyu akhloqi, ehsosi huzuri Hudovand noziri gaybi va masuliyat dar nazdi ust.

Tibqi ahkomi shariati islom tamomi korhoe, ki shakhsi balig (mard az 14 solagi, zan az 9 solagi) boyad ado kunad yo nakunad ba hasht qismatand: farz, vojib, sunnat, mustahab, muboh, harom, makruh, mufsid. Farzu vojib va sunnati takidshuda (muakkida) az navi korhoe hastand, ki kardani onh savob ast va be uzr tark kardani onho gunoh buda, dar qyomat mavrdi pursish va muokhizavu mujozot meboshad. Masalan, nakhondani namozi panjvaqta yo be tahorat khondan, rioya nakardani farzu sunnathoi namoz az hamin qabiland. Mustahab va muboh korhoe hastand, ki kardani onho savob ast, nakardanash gunoh nest va kardan yo nakardani muboh dar shariat barobar ast. Masalan, az hisobi moli khud kharidan va pushidani jomai zebovu fokhir. Ammo donista kardani korhoi harom va mufsid va halol shumoridani onho kufr ast va sazovori azob ast. Nakardani makruh savob ast va kardani on bimi azobro dorad.

Namoz va muqaddamoti on dasturu muqarraroti ziyode dorad, ki bayoni hamai on dar in jo ba juz yak malumoti mukhtasar imkonnopazir ast. Dar mavridi vaqtu rakat (miqdor)-i namoz ba jadvali zerin nigared.

Farzho yo sharthoi asosii beruni namoz inho meboshand: 1. Poku bo tahorat budan,

  • pok budani saru libosi namozguzor, 3-pok budani joynamoz, 4-pushida budani badan (avrat), 5-ruy ba qibla ovardan, 6-dar vaqti khud khondani namoz, 7-niyat kardani namozi mekhondagi, 8-takbiri tahrim yane guftani “Allohu akbar” yo “Allohu azam”.

Naqshai vaqt va tedodi rakatho

vaqti namoz sunnati qabl az farz far

z

sunnat i badi farz nofi

la

shum ora i umu m
1 Fajr (bomdod) az damidani subhi sodiq to baromadani Oftob 2 muakkida 2 4
2 Zuhr (peshin)- az guzashti Oftob az mizon to rasidani soyai asli har chize ba duchandi khudash. 4

muakkida

4 2 muakida 10
3 Asr- az itmomi vaqti namozi peshin to furu raftani Oftob 4 jayri muakkida 4 8
4 Magrib (shom)- az furu raftani Oftob to pinhon shudani surkhii on. 3 2 muakkida 2 7
5 Isho (khuftan) az pinhon shu dani surkhii pasi Oftob to damidani subh 4 gayri muakkida 4 2 muakk ida 3 vitri vojib 4 (2 rakat pesh az vitr

2 bad

17
Juma 4

muakkida

2 4

muakkida

10

Farzhoi dokhili namoz panjto meboshand: 1-qiyom- rost istodan, 2-qiroat- khondani yak oyati daroz yo se oyati kutoh, 3-dar har rakat yak bor ruku (kham shudan), 4- dar har rakat du bor sajda, 5-kaadai okhir va khondani duoi “Attahiyot”.

Dar dokhili namoz mumin tanho sitoish va furutani, ruku va sujudu niyoish mekunad. Az jumla mundarijai onro khondani surai “Fotiha”, ki khulosai Quron ba shumor meravad va oyathoi kutoh, guftani takbir-“Allohu akbar” tashkil medihad. Duo va darkhost dar okhiri namoz ast. Namoz bo davat ba on “azon” ogoz meshavad.

Ruza ( siyom)-i mohi Ramazon yake az arkoni digari binoi islom ast. Dar Quron surai 2, oyati 183-185 doshtani ruza dar mohi Ramazon, ki dar on Quron (va tibqi rivoyatho hamai kitobhoi osmoni) nozil shudaast muqarrar karda meshavad. Ruza davomi si ruz az subh to shom, bayni in du vaqt, ki rishtai safedro az siyoh farq karda tavonand chize nakhurdan va naoshomidan meboshad. Ba gayri ruzai farzi mohi Ramazon metavonad dindor ruzahoi farzi gayri muayyan va vojibi digarro dorad. Ruza niz muqarrarot va muharramoti khudro dorad. Baroi shikastani ruza kaffora (jarima) muayyan karda shudaast. \ Mufassaltar nig.: Namozi komil, murattib.H.R. Mazohiri, Dushanbe 1991 va Zaruriyoti din. Tah.M. Bobonazar, Dushanbe:.”Ism” 1991.\

Pas az sipari shudani mohi Ramazon dar okhiri ruza ba ruzadoron dodani sadaqai fitri ruza ba shakhsoni kambagalu muhtoj farmuda shudaast. Ruzai mohi Ramazon bo “Idi Fitr” (Ramazon) khotima meyobad.

Quron dar mavridi chi guna jashn giriftani in id chize nameguyad. Dar Tojikiston va bisyore az nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona in id az yodovarii murdaho, fotehakhoni dar khonai taziyador, ki hanuz solashon naguzashtaast, khudoi ba arvohi onho ogoz meshavad. Dar nohiyahoi janubi va markazi odati idgardak ba khonai yoru duston, hamsoyaho va shinosho mamul ast.

Dar boramon

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