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NAHZATHOI MAZHBIYU SIYOSI  DAR DAVRAI  NAV

Davrai navi tahavvuli islom az nimai avvali asri XVIII ojoz gardida to imruzro faro megirad. In davra, az nazari khavodisi siyosi, tahavvuloti mafkuraviyu mazhabi, yake az davrahoi purikhtilof va sersamari tarikhi Jarbu SHarq meboshad. Paydoishi nahzati Isloh (Reformasiya)-i nasroni va ba dunboli on harakati Ehyo (Renessans) va Maorifparvari, inqilobhoi burjuozi va rushdi sarmoyadori dar Garb va dar natija on taraqqiyoti besobiqai ilmu sanoat, tekhnulujii harbii kishvarhoi garbiro, ki chand asr pesh dar khobi garoni Kuruni vustoh furu rafta budand, ba yak bor hushyor karda, bar on vodosht, ki po az vartahoi khud berun nihoda, dast ba futuhoti mustamlikavi va istemori kishvarhoi digar zanand va yake pas az digar kishvarhoi Osiyovu Afriqo va Amrikoi Lotinro ba asorati khud darovardand.

Baraks dar in davra kishvarhoi Osiyovu Afriqo, minjumla olami islom, badi ba dasti turkon guzashtani umuri siyosii khilofati islom ba tadrij ru ba tanazzul nihoda, dar asrhoi XVIII- XIX dar muqobili Qudrati siyosivu nizomii Avrupo va peshrafti ilmiyu tekhnulujii on ojizu notavon gardida budand. Barkhurdi nobarobarii SHarqu Garb va ba asorati mustamlikavi duchor shudani sharqiyon, ravshanfikroni in kishvarhoro dar fikri justujui illatu sababhoi aqibmondagi va asorat vodosht. Dar natija in justuju, chun dar Avrupoi asri XVI, nahzat yo khud harakati Islohi islom, aniqtarash harakati islohi shuuri mazhabii musalmonon ba vujud omad.

Nakhustin nahzati islohi mazhabiyu dinhi tarafi yake az fuqahoi mashhuri hanbali Ibn Taymiyya (1262-1328), dar asri H111 tahiya shuda bud. Asli talimoti vahhobiyaro poksozii islom az tariqi ruju ba islomi ibtidoii davroni payjambari islom Muhammad tashkil mekard. Az in ru muboriza bo boqimondahoi butparastivu bisyorkhudoi, ki badan ba islom dar shakli parastishi joyhoi muqaddas, shaykhu eshonu avliyoho va gayra roh yofta budand yake az iqdomot va tabligoti avvalii vahhobiyon bud. Vahhobiyon talab mekardand, ki tanho ba Quron etimod boyad kard, nisbat ba sunna faqat ba on hadishoe etimod qoil budand, ki dar davrai chor khalifi avval khulafoi roshidin malum va etirof shuda budand. Bargasht ba tavhidi beoloish,ba qavli onho, asosi khudoshinosii vahhobiyonro tashkil mekunad. Az in nuqtai nazar onho khele jiddiyu qoteona ba tasavvuf mukholifat va muboriza kardand.

Nafrati eshon nisbat ba aqoidi sufiya ba hadde rasida bud, ki baze duoho va munojoti onhoro, ki dar rui maqbarahoi avliyo khonda meshud, bidat shumoridand va man kardand. Meguyand, ki parastishi avliyo va quburi eshon khud navi digare az shirk ast. Ba jamin sabab nakhustin bor, ki dar soli 1806 ba shahri Makka dast yoftand maqbarahoi buzurgon va sahobahoro, ki ziyoratgohi hojjiyon bud, vayron sokhtand. CHun duvvumin bor dar soli 1924-1925 sultoni Hijozro maglub karda, davlati saudii arabi bo sardorii Abdulaziz ibni Saud barqaror shud, hatto khonae, ki Mukhammad tavallud shuda bud, kharob karda, osoru nishonahoi khonadoni sahobahoi Muhammadro dar qabristoni shakhri Madina kharob namudand. Hulosa, nazarashon bar on bud, ki khar aqida va mabdae, ki dar islom mutobiqi matni vozekhi quron va hadishoi saheh naboshad, kufri  mahz ast. Garoishi onkho konservativi mukallidona bud.

Dar robita ba tarzi zindagii musulmonon aqida doshtand, ki khonavu osori bayt va libosu pushok boyasti zohidona boshad. Musiqi, oroish bo zarru zevarro harom va har guna qimor, shatrani, ki monei zikri khudo va namozi panjvaqta meshavad mamnu ast. Namozro na ba haysi khud, balki tanho baroi Hudo boyad guzosht. Ba hamin tariq vahhobiyon harguna miyonaravishafoat bayni Hudo va muminro rad kardand.

Vahhobiya az nazari ijtimoiyu siyosi ideologiyae bud, ki rikhati barqaror kardani hukumati khonadoni Saudiyon ravona shuda bud. Mukhammad ibn Abdulvhhob az dastgirii peshvoi najdiyon Muhammad ibn Saud barkhurdor bud. Gohoi islohotii Abdulvahhob nerui muharriki ahdofi siyosii khonadoni Saudiyon gardid.

ahmadiyaDuvvumin jarayoni islohotii dinii islom ahmadiya (yo kodiyoniya) meboshad. In jarayon dar bayni musalmononi Hinduston (vil. Panjob) ba vujud omada, khususiyatu ruhiyai mazhabii in sarzaminro dar khud inikos kardaast. Asosguzori in jarayon Mirzo CHulom Ahmadi Qodiyoni (1835-1908) chun asosguzoroni jarayonhoi digari ahyoni hindi, masalan Nanak va Ram Krishna kushishi ba ham nazdik kardani islom, masehiyat, buddoiya va hinduiyaro doshta ast. U soli 1889 khudro Mahdi elon namud va badtar jamiyati dinii “Anjumani ahmadiya”ro tasis kard. Asosi talimoti Mirzo Ahmadro, ( ki dar hududi 80 asar ba zabonhoi urdu va arabi navishtaast ) tavilu tafsiri aqli ( ratsionali)-i quron va sunnai ahli tasannun tashkil mekunad.

Nazariyai falsafii insonshinosii islomro, chun dar osori sunnatii guzashtagon, alalkhusus tasavvuf, dar se zinnai takomuli fardi bayon kardaast. Zinai avval shariat, duvvum takhzibu takomuli nafs akhloq va zinnai seyum takomuli ruhoni. Harchand dar sokhtoru istilohot talimoti Mirzo Ahmad dar Kolibhoi sunnati bayon shudaand, vale dar tafsiru tavil, on farqi ziyode dorad. Ahmadiya Qanoti rosti musolikhagaroi nahzati islohro tashkil mekard. On bar khilofi chapgaroyoni islomi, ki az inqilobi sutsialistii Russiya ilhom girifta budand ( masalan, Muhammad Iqboli Lohuri), muborizai sinfi va jihodro dar islom inkor mekard va bo in amali khud dar voqe ba manfiati sokhti mustamlikadori khizmat kardaast. Hamchunin u tarafdori siyosati ingiliz dar Hinduston bud.

Payravoni Mirzo Gulom Ahmad uro paygambar elon kardand. Ba aqidai khudi u dar vay Makhdii islom, Masehi nasroni va Krishnai khinduiya tajassum yoftaast. Payravonash az rui etirof kardan yo nakardani paygambarii u ba du guruh: kodiyoni (onhoe, ki uro paygambar meguyand) va lokhuri ( onhoe ki uro tanho muslih meshinosand) taqsim shudaand. Badi margi Gulom Akhmad rohbarii ahmadiyaro pisarash Hofiz Mirzo Nosiri Ahmad ba uhda girift. Dar holi hozir rohbariyati in jamiyat dar Britoniyoi Kabir meboshad. In jamiyatro sozmoni baynalkhalqii islomi “Robitatul-olamil islomiya” ziddi islomi elon kardaast. Payravoni in jarayon dar Pokistonu Hinduston dar Afgonistonu Eron va digar mamoliki Osiyovu Afriqo pahn shudaand.

Seyumin iarayoni diniyu siyosie , ki dar davrai nav dar zaminai islom ba vujud omad, Bobiya meboshad. Asosguzori in junbishi mazhabiyu siyosi mardi eronie bo nomi Sayid ( yo Mirzo) Alh Muhammad SHerozi maruf ba” Bob “(1820-1850) bud. Payravonash uro “Hazrati Alo” va ” Nuqtai Uvlo” laqab dodaand. Az padar dar kudaki yatim monda, dar tarbiyai amakash buzurg va kasbi padarashro, ki bazzozi bud idoma medihad. Dar sinni nuzdahsolagi ba Busher meravad va muddati panj sol dar on jo ba kasbash mashgul meshavad, vale chun javoni obid va riyozatkash, bo siyosat va khulki khushu simoi jazzob buda, jame maizub va muridi u shudand. SHoyad dar hamin jo fikri peshvoi ba sarash mezanad.

Sipas ba SHeroz bargashta, kasbu tijoratro raho mekunad va baroi talabi ilm va sayru sayohat rahsipori Iroqu Hijoz gardid. Dar Karbalo ba muridii Sayid Muhammad hozimi Rashti yake az shaykhoni shia dokhil meshavad. Dar on zamon az tarafi firqai shaykhiya zuhuri Imomi Zamonro peshgui mekardand. Az jumla SHaykh Ahmad Ehsoh va shogirdash sayyid Muhammad Hozimi Rashti va hamchunin peshvoi “shaykhiya” Joi Muhammad Karimkhon budand, ki davii bobiyatro ba surati mubkham va nimapinhon izhor kardaand.

Sayid Ali Muhammad pas az du- se soli tahsil dar havzai Sayid Muhammad hozim khudro Bob- Imomi Zamon nomid. CHunin ast ogozi junbishi bobiya. Vale az nigohi angezahoi ijtimoi, bobiyaro nahzati dinie meshumorand, ki dar asari niyozho va manfiathoi tabaqai tozabunyodi burjuozii Eron ba maydon omada, yak qator islohotro dar umuri dini va sunnathoi mazhabi ba miyon guzosht.

Pas az davii bobiyat Sayid Ali Muhammad avval ba Busher pas dar SHiroz va Isfahon davati khudro intishor medihad. Az du shahri avval uro rondand, dar Isfahon mavridi himoyati hokimi on Manuchehrkhoni Gurri mulaqqab ba Mutamid- ud-Davla qaror megirad. Vay uro az zindoni SHeroz berun karda ba Isfahon meorad. Ammo bad az vafoti Mutamid-ud-Davla dushmanii ruhoniyat va mukholifonash ru ba afzoish menihad. Omiloni davlat bo ishorai ulamo uro dastgir karda ba Ozarboyjon mebarand va dar Qalai CHehrik nazdiki shahri Moku zindoni kardand (1846). Bad Bobro ba Tabrez ovarda dar huzuri valiahd Nosiriddin Mirzo dar majlisi ulamo muhokima kardand. Surati savolu javob bo u ba tafsil dar ” Nosikhut-tavorikh” bayon shudaast. Bad az in hodisa uro ba chub bastand, tavbanomae navishta, talabi af kard, ki aynan dar “Lujatnomai Dekhkhudo” ovarda shudaast. Pas az in uro boz ba zindoni CHekhrik firistodand, vale chun payravoni u az dastgirh va zindoni kardani u ba khashm omada, sar ba shurish bardoshtand va in shurish Mozandaronu Zinionu Tabrezro faro girift, uro khukmroni Ozorboyion ba amri Taqikhon Amiri Kabir- sadri azami marufi Eron ba Tabrez ovarda, ba fatvoi ulamo ba dor kashid va tirboron kard. Pas az in shurishi bobiyon berakhmona pakhsh karda shud.

Sayid Alh Mukhammad al-Bob bo vuiudi kutokhii umrash az khud osori ziyode guzoshtaast. Nakhustin tasnifi u “Tafsiri surai YUsuf” ast, ki payravonash onro “Kuyumul- asmo” guyand, digar kitobi mashkhuri u maimuai Alvokhh vay khitob ba ulamo va salotin ast. Digare az kitobkhoi mashkhuri u ” Sakhifai baynal- kharamayn”, “Rukh va fazoilus-saba” va az khama mashkhurtarini onkho “Kitobi bayon” ast, ki guyo muddah bud ki on nosikh- ivazkunandai ,1uron ast.

Bob aqida doshtaast, ki khudo dar khar davrae muvofiK ba sharoiti zamon payjambar va akhkom- kitob mefiristad, az in ru khei yak vakhyi Kabli nametavonad abadh va tajyirnopazir boshad. Bo in rokh u mekhostaast iazmiyat- dogmavh budani akhkomi islomro az bayn barad va dar .1uron va shariat tajirot vorid kunad. Dar khamin asos u khudro payjambar elom namuda, shariatro inkor kard va barobarii odamonro elom namud. Bob davat namud,ki molikiyati molikoni buzurg bekor karda shavad, az kambizoaton moliyot sitonda nashavad,taKsimi barobari khamai boigarh va sarmoyai davlat, ozodii fard va jayraro talab mekard. Bo vuiudi ifodai ormonkhoi onruzai tabaKai zakhmatkash va kambizoat va baze shiorkho va talabotkhoi taraKKikhokhona talimoti bobiya az aKoidi omekhtayu darkham barkhame az tali-motkhoi sufiyon, botiniyoni ismoili va juloti shia iborat ast , ki dar zaminai tavili nodurusti oyot va akhkom va tajiru tabdili shariat va sunnati islom bunyod shudaast.

Bad az Katli Bob chande az payravoni u khudro khalifai u elon kardand. Az iumla Mirzo YAkhyo Subkhi Azal va barodarash Mirzo Husayn Alii Nurh (1817-1892), ki badan khudro Bakhoullokh elom namud, U imruz asosguzori dini B a kh o- i ya ba shumor meravad. Onkho bad az suyKasdti bobiyon ba ioni shokh ba IroK tabid shudand. Mazkhabi bobiya imruz dar Eron ba khukmi ilkhod daromada va mavKuf shuda ast.

Bakhoullokh talimoti khudro dar kitobe bo nomi “Kitobu-AKdas”, “Ikon” va risolakho ( lavkhakhoi alokhida) bayon kardaast. Bakhullokh avval az Eron ba Bajdod badarja va badan dar Istambul va digar shakhrkhoi Osiyoi Hurd zindagh kardaast.

Mokhiyatan bakhoiya niz dar ibtido az kushishi ba manfiati ittihodiyahoi burjuoziyai baynalmilali tobe kardani akhkomi dini islom ba vuiud omada, badan talimoti khudro dini alokhida elom namud. Dar on rukhi inKilobh va muborizi bobiya az bayn burda shudaast. Umuman tialimoti bakhoiya, ki manfiati burjuai monopolistiro ifoda mekunad, khususiyati olamvatani-kosmopolitik dorad. Onkho ba muKobili iangkho va ikhtilofoti mazkhabh baromad namuda, ba zeri bayraKi bakhoiya, ki guyo ifodai ormonkhoi olii khamai dinkho va anbiyo meboshad, davat mekunand.

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