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PAYDOISHI INSONI OQIL

Muvofiqi malumoti tozatarini ilmii insonshinosi tarikhi tashakkul va judo shudani on shokhai jonvaron, ki badan az on inson tashakkul yoftaast ba 50 million soli pesh va paydoishi mavjude dar rui Zamin, ki onro metavon niyogoni insoni oqil nomid, nazdik ba 6 to 3 million sol pesh takhmin shudast. Ammo dar muqoisa bo in davrai dindorii odamon yak hissai nochizi in tarikhro tashkil mekunad. Olimon aksariyat, paydoishi dinhoro hududi 40 to 25 hazor sol pesh az in, dar davrai paleoliti poyoni ( yane ogozi asri sangi) muayyan kardaand.

Pas malum meshavad, ki kamash ziyoda az 2 millionu 970 hazor sol, badi hamchun inson tashakkul yoftan, insoniyat be din zindagi kardaast. Barrasihovu omuzishi johho va manzilu nishemangohho va qabrhoi qadimtarini odamon (arkhantropho[1]) ba olimon hej guna dalelu burhone, ki mustaqim yo gayri mustaqim ba dindorii onho dalolat kunand, to hol, nadodaand. Din hatto panjsad to sad hazor sol pesh az in, dar nazdi jonvaroni shabehi inson az qabili «pitekantrop»-ho va «sinantrop»-ho niz, vujud nadoshtaast, zero az mutoliai nishemangohho va manzilhoi onho chize, ki kamtarin dalolat ba dindorii onho kunad, paydo nashudaast.

Olimon insoni neandertalro*, ki dar asri sangini bolo zistaast, nakhustodami dindor dar rui zamin meshumorand, ki mobayni sad to bistu panj hazor sol pesh az in mezistaast. Baze ashyo va osore, ki dar joyhoi zist va qabrhoi in odamon yoft shudaand, hikoyat az navi etiqod va bovarihoi onho dorand.[2] [3] Az jumla, dar qabru gurho hamrohi murdagoni khud gizovu taom va hamchunin asbobi jangu nabard- asbob aslihai jangii sangi va g-raro dafn kardaand, az in metavon takhmin kard, ki onho yak nav bovari ba az nav zinda shudan va hayoti bad az marg yo tasavvuroti digare doshtaand.

Badtar, hududi 30- 25 hazor sol pesh az in odamoni shabehi mo, ki kromanions (Sgo-Matop$) * nomidaand zindagi mekardand. Kromanionsho odamoni oqil (Noto- $rshya) doroi qobiliyati tafakkuri tajridi (abstrakti) budaand.

Kromanionsho dar voqe najode az bashari haqiqii kamolyofta budaast. Kosakhonai sari onho yak miqdor buzurgtar az kosakhonai sari imruzai bashar, balandqomattarin va tanumandtarin najodhoi bashari jahon budaand. Onho ham, monandi guzashtagoni khud-neandertalho murdahoi khudro dar zeri khok mesuporidand va rasmi ajibe doshtaand, ki badan va ustukhonhoi murdahoro bo yak nav rangi surkhe rangin mekardaand. In khud guvohi ba joy doshtani marosimhoi khose dar asosi etiqodi dini meboshad. Guzashta az in naqqoshi va rangomezi dar hayoti in guruhi bashari naqshi buzurge doshtaast, dar gorhoe, ki faslhoi sarmo dar on zindagi ikhtiyor mekardaand, nigorandagi va naqqoshi az khud boqi guzoshtaand. Olimoni insonshinosu bostonshinos bar in aqidaand, ki kromanionshoi shikorchi qabl az on, ki ba shikor ravand dar manzilgohhoi khud, hamon gushahoi gorhoi torik jam shuda, bo marosim va tashrifoti khose peshvoyoni khudro bar on targib mekardaand, ki badani in hayvoni rui sangho kashidashudaro rang namuda, alomati asliha yo afzoli shikori bar on guzorad, faqat bad az hamin az magoraho berun meraftaand va bovari doshtaand, ki on amalero, ki dar gor tavahhum va tasavvur kardand, ba zudi ba vuqu khohad payvast.

insonHulosa baroi az quvva- imkon (potensiya) ba fel omadan (voqeiyat yoftan)-i on qobiliyati zotii dindori va khudojuii inson zamoni tulonii duru darozi tarikhi va sharoiti marifatiyu ijtimoi ( sababu illathoi gunogun) lozim bud. Az in ru metavon guft, ki harchand dindori bilquvva khususiyati zotii inson boshad ham, din dar jamiyati insoni az azal nabuda va poydoishi on doroi chandin omilho va reshahoest, ki dar dinshinosi omukhta meshavand. Baroi on ki inson olami voqei, havodisi tabiat, jamiyat va mohiyati khudro shinosad in muqaddamot zarurat dosht. CHunin imkoniyat va qobiliyat dar insoni tarikhi tanho dar davrai paleolit (100­25 hazor sol pesh) paydo gardida, to davrai neolit (asri sangini nav 7-5 hazor sol pesh) tashakkulu takomul yofta va zaminai paydoishi avvalin tasavvuroti soddai dini gardidaand. In davraro metavon davrai khudshinosii inson, davrai tazakkur, yodovarii mohiyati fitrii kheshtan, davrai nashu namoi isolati zotii inson dar asari tasiri sababu angezahoi marifati, ijtimoi va g-ra nomid. In ravandi khudshinosii inson dar davrahoi badi niz to paydoishi dinhoi tavhidi qat nagardid.

[1] arkhantrop (yun. agsyayuz qadim +ap1goros odam)- istilohest dar insonshinosi baroi ifodai navhoi odamoni qadim az navi pitekantropho ( yun. rnIekoj maymun+ apIoroz odam) va sinantrophs( 8ta Hitoy+ ap1goroj odam – odami qadimae, ki dar Hitoy nazdikii Pekin yoft shudaast) .

* neandertal( nomi vodii Neandertal dar Olmon- joi avvalin bozyoft boqimondai odamoni qadim ast, ki soli 1856 kashf shuda)- navi odamoni hafriyotii qadim, ki dar tahavvuli insoniyat mahalle bayni pitekantrop va odamoni hoziraro ishgol mekardaand.

[3]   F. Kliks. Probujdayusheesya mishlenie:U istokov chelovecheskogo intellekta\\ perev.s nem. M.: Progress. 1983.-S. 136-137.,144-146.

* kromanonsi ( az nomi gori Kro-Manon dar Fransiya, ki mahalli avvalin bazyofti boqimondahoi hafriyotii odamon ast)- navi odamoni shabehi odamoni muosir ,ki dar Avrupo mezistaand va az neandertalho khelo farq mekardaand.

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