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Protestantizm – raviyai dini nasroni

Protestantizm (etiroziyon) yake az se raviyai bonufuzi dini nasroni buda, dar asari nahzati gustardai isloh (reformasiya), ki alayhi raviyai katoliki dar asri XVI shuru shuda bud, ba vujud omadaast. Protestantizm az Olmon bo nahzat va talimoti Martin Lyuter (1483-1546) ogoz gardida, bad az sari u tamomi Avruporo faro girift. In nahzatro pas az Lyuter Tomas Myunser (naz.1490-1525), Ulrikh Svingli (1484-1531), Jan Kalvin (1509-1564) sarvari kardaand.

protesta

Omili asosii paydoishi in jarayoni navi nasroni zuhuri tabaqai navi ijtimoi bo nomi burjuazi va po ba arsai vujud nihodani sokhti navi jamiyati, yane sarmoyadori bud.

Manfiati in tabaqai jadid va sistemi iqtisodii on zarurati ozodii manavi va sohibikhtiyorii beshtari odamonro taqozo mekard. Az in ru, onho bar ziddi qonunho sokhti feodali va kalisoi katolikii homii on bo shiddat muboriza ogoz kardand va dar nihoyat omili muhimtarin navovarii mazhabiyu etiqodi «protestantizm» gardid.

Asli isloh iborat az on bud, ki Hudoi osmoniro Lyuter dar qalbi odamon joy kard. Haqqu huquqi har fardro dar ozodivu sohibikhtiyori dar umuri dini va imon tibqi aqli shakhsi va ba vasilai imoni qalbiash etirof kard.

Protestantho alayhi bidathoi kalisoi katulikro, ki khudro miyonrav bayni Hudo va mardum elon karda bud baromadand.

Goyai asosii protestanti iborat az on ast, ki ba najot tanho bo imoni komil ba margi Esoi Maseh jihati kaforati gunohoi insoniyat musharraf shudan mumkin ast. Har yak nasroni, tibqi etiqodi protestantho, barobari gusli tamid va imon ovardan, «ogohi» yo «shinosoi» (posvyashenie) niz paydo mekunand va ehtiyoj ba hej miyonrave nadorad.

Protestantizm ba muqobili duo baroi murdagon, sajdavu ibodati joyhoi muqaddas, etiqodu parastishi turbatho va timsol (ikon)-ho baromadand.

Zimnan tavajjuh kuned, har qadar dinho az asrhoi miyona ru ba davroni nav meravand, hamon qadar marosim va tazahuroti dini va bidathoi asrimiyonagi mohiyati khudro gum mekunand.

Hulosa, protestantizm tamomi fasod va tazohurparastii kaliso va pophoi katulikro, ki dar tuli asrhoi miyona bo taassubi mazhabi, taqlidu tazohur ba jomeai avrupoi hokimiyat mekard, fosh namud. Sokhtori kalisoi protestanti, ham dar memoriyu oroish va ham dar rusumi ibodat va qonuni rahboniyat, az kalisoi katuliki farqi jiddi dorad.

Harakati islohi masehiyat yak gardishi buzurge dar tarikhi farhangi va ijtimoiyu iqtisodii Avrupo bud. Paydoishi in raviya na tanho ba ozodii mazhabiyu manavi, balki az hama muhim, ba rushdi sarei iqtisodiyu ijtimoi, tashakkuli jamiyati sarmoyadori kumaki benihoyat buzurge kardaast.

Protestantho badan ba firqahoi ziyode taqsim shudaand, ki az maruftarini onho: lyuteranho, kalvinistho, baptistho, adventistho, iegovistho, metodistho meboshand.

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TALIMOTI MAZDAK

Moni talim medod, ki jahon natijai asorati nur /ravon/ dar zindoni zulmat /modda/ ba vujud …