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Rahboniyat, zuhd va irfon dar masehiyat

Sarchashmai zuhd va rahboniyat dar dini masehi nakhust khudi Bibliya bud. Az jumla, sukhanoni havvori Pavel, ki meguft. «Muminoni esaviro az zan va mard shoista ast, ki ba tanhoi zindagi karda, dushiza bimonand».

Avvalin shakhse, ki ba in roh raftaquddus Antoni az aholii Misr bud. Dar davrai avval rahboniyat dar sarzaminhoi Misr, SHom va sohilu navohii Osiyoi Hurd ba nahvai gornishini, panoh burdan ba biyobon, khazidan dar gushai kharobaho, nishastan ba farozi sutunhoi sangi va dokhili shokhho va magokihoi darakhton roij buda ast.

Badan in sabki rahboniyat davom naovard va bar ivazi on zuhdu uzlati dastajami yo guruhi dar binovu inshooti makhsus, ki dayr (monastir) nom girift, rivoj paydo kard.

Avvalin dayrhoi rahboniyati masehi dar mamoliki Garb hanuz qabl az janghoi salibi ba vujud omada boshand ham, tanho dar jarayoni janghoi salibi tashkilot va sozmonho guruhhoi rohibi dar doirai tariqati sistersianho va benediktianho sozmon yoftaand.

Benediktianho nakhustin tariqati rahboniyati nasroni dar Avrupoi garbi buda, soli 530 az tarafi Benedikti Nursi asos yoftaast.

Tariqati sistersianho az tarafi yak nafar payravi tariqati benediktion Roberti Molezmi soli 1098 poyaguzori shudaast. Benedikti muqaddas ba payravoni khud dastur dod, ki dar dayri khud ba korhoi dasti va dar sahro va dukonho mashguli amali sudmand boshand.[1] Ba khondani kitobhoi muqaddas va ibodat dar asnoi ruz va qismate az shabro biguzarond.

Az tariqathoi marufi badi metavon az fransiskianho va dominikanho nom burd. Tariqati fransiskianho dar ibtidoi asri 13 az tarafi Fransisi Assizi dar Itoliyo tasis gardida. Muhimtarin khususiyati fransiskianho on ast, ki dayrnishin nestand, balki bo mardum iqomat doshtand va beshtar musofirat mekardand va dar bayni mardum faqru zuhdro bo zaboni soddai omma targib va ba korhoi khayriya mashgul budand.

dominiko-degusmaMuassisi dominikonho Dominiko de Gusman (1170-1221) buda, soli 1215 dar shahri Tuluzi Ispaniya tashkil gardidaast. Onhoro sagoni khudo niz menomand, chunki nishonaashon sage bo mashali furuzone dar dandon meboshad.

Dar tamomi Avrupo dayrhoi mardona va zanona to imruz amal mekunand va aksari tariqathoi nomburda to holiya vujud dorand. Tibqi malumoti ibtidoi solhoi 80um dar holi hozir dar Avrupo dar kaliso katuliki hududi 140 tariqati rahboniyat, bo 150 hazor rohib va 1 million rohiba ba hisob girifta shudaast.

Dar olami masehi dar doirai rahboniyat irfon niz ba vujud meoyad. YAke az orifoni mashhuri nasroni Bernar Klervov (1090-1153)-i fransavi, asosguzori tariqati sistersianho meboshad. Tibqi aqidai u shakhsi solik doroi quddusiyati osmoni meshavad va ba martabai ishqi ulvi merasad. Orifoni nasroni baroi sayri suluk se marhala qoiland: tasfiyai nafs, yane pok kardani zamiru botini inson az har guna nopokihoi fikrivu ravoni (psikhiki) va nuroniyati nafs, yane munavvar sokhtani zamir bo muhabbatu ishqi Parvardigor va nihoyat vahdati nafsi muhib bo mahbub (Hudo)

[1]  CHun tariqati naqshbandiya, ki «dast ba koru dil ba yor»ro shior karda budand.

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