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Ravandhoi innovatsioni

Tahlili ravandi innovatsioni sobit mesozad, ki guzarish az yak holati sifati ba holati digar kharojoti zakhiraho (quvva, vaqt, moliyot, zakhirahoi innovatsioni va ittilooti)-ro talab mekunad. Ravandi intiqoli navigari, innovatsiya niz kharojoti zakhirahoi gunogunro, ki asosashon ravandi innovatsioni va vaqt ba hisob meravand, talab menamoyad. Dar sharoiti bozor, khamchun nizomi munosibathoi iqtisodii kharidu furushi mol, ki dar chorchubai on talabot, taklif va narkh, ki juzhoi asosii faoliyati innovatsioni ba shumor meravand, tashakkul meyoband va dar shakli navigariho, innovatsiyaho va navovariho baromad mekunand. Navigariho-bozori navovarihoro (novatsiyahoro), sarmoyaguzoriho bozori sarmoyaho (sarmoyaguzorihoro), innovatsiyaho bozori raqobati tozai navovarihoro ba vujud meorand.

imagesTahti unvoni ravandhoi innovatsioni dar mafhumi vasei khud istifodai foidanoki navigariho dar namudi tekhnologiyahoi nav, namudhoi mahsulot va khizmatrasoniho, qarorhoi tashkiliyu tekhniki va ijtimoiyu iqtisodii khususiyati istehsoli, moliyavi, tijorati, mamuri va gayra doshta, fahmida meshavad. Ba vujudoii andesha, zamina va pahnsozii on to istifodaash arzivujud namudani innovatsiya nomida meshavad. Bo nazardoshti anjomi paydarhami korho ba vujud omadani innovatsiya hamchun ravandi innovatsioni barrasi megardad.

Istilohhoi «innovatsiya» va «ravandi innovatsioni» ba ham nazdikand, vale yakkhela nestand. Ravandi innovatsioni bo bunyod sokhtan, azkhudkunI va pahnsozii innovatsioni vobasta ast. Bunyodkunandagoni innovatsioni dar faoliyati khesh chunin meyorhoro ba misli davrai arzi vujud namudani masnuot va samaranoki iqtisodI chun rahnamo qaror medihand. Strategiyai onho ba on nigaronida shudaast, ki boyad az raqib pesh guzasht, navigarie ba vuchud ovard, ki dar sohai muayyan nazir nakhohad dosht. Ejodkorihoi ilmi-tekhniki va navovariho hamchun natijahoi mobaynii davri ilmi-istehsoli baromad namuda, az rui istifodai amaliashon ba innovatsiyai ilmi- tekhniki, yane natijahoi nihoi mubbadal megardand. Ejodkoriho va ikhtirooti ilmi-tekhniki zamimai donishi nav bo maqsadi istifodai amalii on, innovatsiyai ilmi-tekhniki boshad – in moddikunonii andeshahoi nav va donish, kashfiyot, ikhtiroot va ejodkorihoi ilmi- tekhniki dar jarayoni istehsolot bo maqsadi ba furush barovardani onho bahri qone sokhtani talaboti muayyani istemolkunandagon ba hisob meravand. Hususiyati hatmii navigarii ilmi-tekhniki istifodai on dar istehsolot ba hisob meravad.

Binobar in, innovatsiyahoi ilmi-tekhniki boyad chunin boshand:

  • doroi navovari,
  • qonesozandai talaboti bozor,
  • baroi istehsolkunanda foidaovar.

Pahnsozii innovatsiyaho, navovariho, ba misli ejodi onho qismi tarkibii ravandi innovatsioni ba shumor meravad.

Se shakli mantiqii ravandi innovatsioniro, yane-shakli oddii dokhilitashkiloti (voqei), shakli oddii baynitashkiloti (moli) va vasero az hamdigar farq mesozand.

Ravandi innovatsionii oddii dokhilitashkiloti barpo kardan va dar dokhili khudi hamon tashkilot istifodabarii navovarihoro peshbini menamoyad, navovari dar in holat bevosita shakli moliro namegirad. Hangomi ravandi innovatsionii oddii baynitashkiloti navovari hamchun ashyoi kharidu furush baromad mekunad. CHunin shakli ravandi innovatsioni va istehsolkunandai navovari manoi az vazifai istemolkunandagi judo gardidani vazifahoi barposoziro dorad. Ravandi vasei innovatsioni dar masalai bavujudorii istehsolkunandagoni navovari, dar barhamdihii monopoliyavii istehsolkunandai nakhustin zohir megardad, ki ba vositai raqobati mushtarak ba takmili khususiyathoi istemolii moli istehsolshavanda musoidat mekunad. Dar sharoiti ravandi innovatsionii moli haddi aqal du subekti khojagidor-istehsolkunanda (bunyodkunanda) va istemolkunanda (istifodabaranda)-i navovari amal mekunand. Agar navovari- ravandi tekhnologi boshad, istehsolkunanda va istemolkunandai on metavonand, ki dar yak subekti khojagidori joygir shavand.

Ravandi oddii innovatsioni dar du marhila ba shakli moli meguzarad; 1) bavujudorii ejodi navigari va pahnsozii on; 2) bo ham omekhtani navovari. Marhilai avval – in davrahoi paydarpayi tadqiqothoi ilmi, korhoi tajribaviyu naqshakashi, tashkili istehsoloti tajribavi va furush (savdo), tashkili istehsoloti tijorati meboshad. Dar marhilai avval hanuz samarai foidanokii navovari amali nagashta, tanho imkoniyathoi tatbiqi on ba vujud meoyad. Dar marhilai duyum samarai jamiyatiyu foidanoki dar bayni istehsolkunandagoninavovari, inchunin  dar bayni istehsolkunandagonu istemolkunandagon az nav taqsim meshavad.

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