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SABABHOI BOZMONDANI DAR JOMEA.

Harchand okhiri solhoi 70-um va nimai avvali solhoi 80- um dar mamlakat peshraviho ba amal omada boshand ham, dar hayoti siyosi, ijtimoi-iktisodi va manavi norasogiho ba nazar merasidand. Sababkhoi kafomoni sokhtori siyosii mamlakat nabuda, tarzi idorakunii on bud. Aksari mutakhassison akibimonihoro ba sokhti sotsialisti vobasta medonand. Tachribai yake az kalontarin mamlakathoi chahon CHin in dalelro rad mekunad.
Dar navbati avval khizbi kommunisti ba khatogihoi chiddi roh dodanash ba buhron giriftor shuda, maqomi peshbarandagii khudro hamchun yadroi siyosi az dast dod. Dastgohi idorakunii hizbro byurokratizm faro girifta, dar shaklhoi rohbarikuni va ravandhoi siyosi ba
kambudihoi chiddi roh dodand. Ba hamai vazifahoi davlati va khochagi asosan azoyoni khizb peshbari karda meshudand. Baroi hamin har guna shakhsoni tasodufi, besalohiyat va mansabparast ba har roh ba khizb dokhil shuda, sokhibi mansabhoi kalon megashtand.
Dar khizb prinsiphoi demokrati vayron shuda, sistemai byurokratii chori shud. Mustakiliyati tashkilothoi poyonii khizb bekor gardida, tamomi farmonho az bolo barovarda meshudand. Masalan, az idorahoi bolo farmon doda meshud, ki chand nafar zan va yo mard ba safi khizb qabul karda shavand.
Rohbariyati farmonfarmoi ba pastravii iktisodi sabab shud. Az sababi siyosati nodurusti iktisodi Ittihodi SHuravi ba istikhrochkunandai mavodi khom tabdil yoft. Istehsoli mahsulot dar jumhuriho, az jumla dar Tochikiston ba sifr barobar shud. Tochikiston madanhoi gunogun az kabili tillo, nukra va gayraro berun az sarhad mebarovard. Tamomi mahsuloti zaruriro az berun kharida meovard.
Dar solhoi 70-um Ittihodi SHuravi bo maqsadi behtar namudani nishondihandahoi iqtisodi, mutadil namudani vazi chamiyati-siyosi bo surati baland mavodi khomi kimatbahoro ba khoricha mebarovard. Muvofiki malumothoi omori agar soli 1960 ba khoricha 18 mln tonna neft sodir
karda boshad, pas soli 1970 in nishondod ba 137 mln tonna rasid. Istikhrochi gaz az 3,3 mlrd-i soli 1970 to 68 mlrd soli 1987 rasonda shud. (Izvestiya.-1991.- 15 oktyabr). Ba ivazi
sodiroti mavodi suzishvori az khoricha molhoi mavridi ekhtiyoch, va ozuqa ovarda, bo hamin vasila talaboti ruzafzuni aholi tamin karda meshud. Soli 1982 barnomai ozuqavori kabul karda shud, ki meboist aholii mamlakat to soli 1990 bo ozuqa ba tavri mutadil tamin karda meshud. Ammo sitemai mamuri-farmonfarmoii byurokrati imkon nadod, ki dar sohai kishovarzi yagon tagyirot ba amal biyoyad.
Vazi iqtisodii Tochikiston az digar jumhuriho tafovut nadosht. Daromadi miyona ba har sari aholi az 9,3% solhoi 1961-65 dar solhoi 1981-85 ba 3,1% faromad. Mahsuloti sanoat muttanosiban az 9,1 ba 4% mahsuloti kishovarzi az 9,1 ba 1,6%, hosilnokii mekhnati chamiyati az 7,8 ba 0,3, daromad ba har aholi az 2,8 ba 4,2 dar sad past faromad. (Narodnoe khozyaystvo Tadjikistana v 1985g.-S.84).
CHi tavre, ki dar bolo qayd karda shud, dar solhoi 60-um va solhoi minbada dar mamlakat dar borai guzaronidani islohot dar sohai iqtisodi chandi kushishho karda shudand. Dar sokhtori idorai davlati tagyirotho dokhil namuda, ba vositai purzur namudani rohbari dar iktisodiyot digarguni darovardani meshudand. Solhoi 1961-1962 sistemai
vazorathoi sohavi ba SHurohoi iktisodi ivaz karda shudand. Dar viloyatu nokhiyaho SHurohoi namondagoni khalkiro ba SHurohoi namoyandagoni khalkii shakhriyu dehoti chudo namudand. YAne dar yak khududi muayyan du hokimiyat amal mekard, ki yake ba dehot rohbari mekardu, digare ba shakhr.
Dar sohai kishovarzi badi chand vakt islohotho guzaronida shudand. Dar solhoi 70-um ba tarzi sohavi bargashta, dar yak vaqt shumorai vazoratu tashkilothoi rohbarikunanda ziyod karda shud. Masalan dar sohai kishovarzi dar barobari Vazorati kishovarzi boz vazorathoi gushtu shir, khuroka, mevayu sabzavot va gayraho tashkil karda shudand. Dar solhoi 80-um muttakhid kardani kompleksi kishovarziyu sanoati az bolo to poyon guzaronida shud. Lekin tamomi in islohotho vaziyatro boz ham badtar gardondand.
Ba vaziyati dushvori iktisodi-moliyavii mamlakat nigoh nakarda, dar solhoi 80-um dar Ittihodi SHuravi shumorai vazoratu idorahoi davlati ziyod karda shud. Takhmin ba har 5-6 nafar 1-togi sardor rost meomad.

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