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SHARIATI ISLOM

SOHTORI SHARIAT. SHariat (az kalimai ara. shar-sharaa – rohi rost, durust, qonun, qoida va rasmu rusumi hatmy) majmui muqarrarotu munosiboti bayni odamon, qoidavu manosiki ijroi marosimhoi mazhaby, huquqi shahrvandy, jinoy va siyosii musalmonho meboshad, ki pesh az hama dar zaminai Quron va sunnat muayyan shudaast. Dini islom na tanho masoili sof ibodatu parastishi khudo, balki tamomi sohai hayoti jamiyati- huquq, ijtimoiyot, siyosat, akhloq, maishatro dar bar megirad va baroi onho qonun vaz kardaast. Az in ru islom na tanho din balki dastur va tarzi zindagi niz meboshad. SHariati islom rui chahor rukn: ibodat, muomilot, hudud va imomatu khilofat (yoahkomi sultoni -siyosi) ustuvor ast.

SHariati islom az sistemahoi digari qonunguzorii dinii garbiyu sharqi farq dorad. Dar on ham masoili mazhabi- amaliyai dini, ki kitobi ibodat nom dorad va ham umuru ahkomi marbut ba munosibathoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi– kitobi muomilot, huquqi- kitobi hudud va aksar az on masoili akhloqi, odobi muoshirat niz mavridi bahs ast.

Masalahoi nazariyavii shariat dar doirai ilmi fiqh mavridi bahsu barrasi qaror giriftaast. Umuman boyad takid kard, ki tarikhan dar mavridi muayyan namudani tanosubi shariat va fiqh bayni ulamoi islom va hamchunin islomshinosi ittifoqi nazar nest. Bazeho in harduro hammano va yak meshumorand va bazei digar bayni onho tafovut meguzorand. SHariat hamon dastur va rohi rost (siratul- mustaqim), qonuni asosii islom, ki dar Quron va sunna mundarija ast. Fiqh (az kalimai arabii faqaha-fahmishi amiq, donish) ilmest, ki doir ba masoili sharii islom bahsu barrasi nazari va oid ba usuli istinboti ahkomi shari rohu ravish muayyan namuda, takmilu tatbiqi onro tibqi muqtazoi zamon pas az vafoti Payombari on (s) tamin namudaast. Dar mavridi ilmi fiqh badan mufassaltar tavaqquf khohem kard, holo boyad bubinem chor rukni nomburdai shariat kadom masalahoro dar bar megirad.

Rukni avval ibodat ast va dar in qismati shariat ahkomi ibodat: farzu sunnathoi tahorat, namoz, ruza, manosiki hajji Honai Hudo bayon shudaast. Dar shariati islom az hama beshtar ba umuri ibodat, alalkhusus tahorat-pokiyu tozagi diqqati makhsus doda meshavad. Dar kitobhoi ba umuri shariat bakhshidashuda, qismati ibodat va dar on bobi tahorat az hama buzurg meboshand. Tahorat dar ibodat du nav ast: tahorati badan va libos (zohir) va tahorati qalb (botin). Bobi tahorat dar hamin mavrid va chigunagii rioyati on, chizhoe, ki tahoratro shikanand va gayra bahs meshavad. Dar bobi namoz farzu sunnatho, vaqt, sharoit, chigunagii adoi namoz va gayra bahs shudaast. Hamchunin ahkomi ruza va sharoiti hajji Honai Hudo dar in bob omadaast.

Asli duvvumi shariati islom muomilot, ba istilohi imruz “huquqi shahrvandi”- muqarrarot, shartu sharoit va ahkomi munosibathoi oilavi, ijtimoi iqtisodi, tijorat bayni odamon meboshad. Masalan, sharoiti nikoh va taloq, ijora, kharidu furush (bay), qarzu vadia, vasiyatu meros, vakolat, sharoiti khojagidori (muzoria) va obdihi (soiqa) az jumlai on korhoest, ki islom ahkomi muayyane nisbat ba onho vaz kardaast. Muomilotro dar adabiyothoi sharii islomi uqud (bastani ahdu paymon) ham menomand, ki iborat az ponzdah kitob ast.

Aslu poyai seyumi shariati islomi al-hudud yo ba istilohi imruza ahkomi jinoi (sohai huquqi jinoi) meboshad. Al-hudud in jo ba manii hududul-loh, yane haddu hududi muayyan kardai Hudo, ki az on naboyad tajovuz kard, omadaast va tajovuz az on jinoyat va javobgarist. Jinoyathoe, ki dar bobi hadd va mujozoti onho muayyan shudaast iboratand az: duzdi, zino (aloqai nomashrui jinsi), rohzani, isyon va az din gashtan, (raddiya), fohishagi (al-bagi), lavoti (aloqai jinsii hamjinsi- gomosseksuali), shurbi khamr (maykhori) va gayra.

Tariqai asosii mujozot az sangsor kardan, buridani angushtu dast, qamchin- durra zadan va qatl bo shamsher va ba dor kashidan meboshad. Masalan, baroi duzdi buridani angushton va dast, baroi shurbi khamr (sharob) qamchin zadan, baroi zino sangsor kardan va baroi gashtan az din qatl muayyan shudaast.

Nihoyat rukni chorumi shariati islomi imomat va khilofat iborat az ahkomi siyosi yo ahkomi sultoni- meboshad, ki shaklu mohiyati hukumati islomi, sharoiti hukumat va rohbari, munosibat ba davlathoi digar, ravobiti khoriji, sharoiti jihod, sulh, munosibat bo raiyat va gayraro muayyan mekunad. Muhimtarin vazifai shariati islomi dar in bob hifzi davlatu din ast. Dar zamoni Payombar(s) va Hulafoi Roshidin (r) va khilofati islomi in ruknro «imomat va khilofat» menomidand, pas az on «viloyati faqeh» (dar ahli shia) va «ahkomi sultoni» dar ahli sunnat.

In ast on chahor rukn yo qismati shariati islom, ki islom bar on rostu qoim ast. SHariati islom az gahvora to gur baroi tamomi juziyoti hayotu faoliyati inson qoidavu qonun, normahovu muqarraroti zaruri vaz kardaast.CHunon ki guftem, dar in bayn qismati ibodat az hama qismati takmil yofta va buzurgi shariat ast, vale qismathoi muomilot, hudud va ahkomi sultoni chandon mukamal nestand va ahkomi on niz qati va tagirnopazir nameboshand, balki in ahkom aksar hukmi “qavoidi omma” va dasturoti “zanniyu istidloli” yane usuli kullii hallu fasli masalaro dar bar megirad. CHunki hayoti jamiyati, sobitu doimi nest va hamesha dar tagyiru tahavvul ast az in ru dar in se qismat shariati islom va hamchunin dar Kitob va Sunnat joy va imkon baroi halli masoil tibqi sharoit va muqtazoi zamonro guzoshtaast. YAne jazmiyot, yane muqarrarot va ahomi tagyirnopazir aksaran dar qismati ilohiyot va ibodati islom ast, na dar qismati umuri zindagi va hayoti ijtimoiyu iqtisodii on.

Hulosa, dar tuli ziyoda az chahordah asr shariati islom baroi musalmonon yagona qonun va dasturi zindagi, zaminai munosibathoi ijtimoi, siyosi, akhloqi va gayra ba shumor meraft. Tanho az okhirhoi asri 18-um va ibtidoi asri 19-um sar karda olami islomi ba olami masehii garbi az nazdik ru ba ru shud. Badtar dar asari giriftori ba domi mustamlikadori va tasiru fishori sistemai sarmoyadoriyu sutsiolistii garbi dar kishvarhoi islomi tarzi zindagi, qavoidu muqarraroti huquqi, nizomi va siyosii garbi nufuz karda, dar sohai huquqi shahrvandi, huquqi jinoi va davlatdori shariati islomro tang kardand. To okhiri asri bistum dar bisyore az kishvarhoi islomi normahoi huquqi garbi va yo omekhta (sintez)-i garbiyu islomi amal mekardand. In holat hanuz ham dar kishvarhoi sobiq sistemai sotsialisti va shuravi poy barjost.

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