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SOHTI MAMURI DAR OSIYOI MIYONA (OHIRI ASRI XVIII AVVALI ASRI XIX)

CHi tavre ki qayd karda shud, okhiri asri XYIII va avvali asri XIX dar Osiei Miyona 3 davlati feodali – Bukhoro, Quqand va Heva mavchud budand. Akhvoli siyosii in khonigarikho yakkhel bud. Dar in khonigarikho khokimiyati markazi sust va akhvoli ommai khalq toqatfarso bud.
Dar sari davlat amir (Bukhoro va khoni Quqand) meistodand. Hokimiyati khon va amiron nomakhdud bud. YAgon organi intikhobe, ki az boloi faoliyati onkho nazorat barad, vuchud nadosht. Dar zamoni amri SHokhmurod shuro, ki az yakchand kas iborat bud, amal mekard va dar khalli masalakho shirkat mevarzid. Ammo in shuro kharakteri maslikhati doshta, qaror az tarafi amir barovarda meshud. (Istoriya
Tadjikskogo naroda.- CH. II.- S.68).
Dar amorati Bukhoro bad az amir – Atolik meistod, ki tamomi korkhoi iktisodiyu siyosi va mamuriro dida mebaromad. Korkhoi khochagi, mamuri va khiroch, chamkuni dar ikhtiyori Kushbegi bud. Korkhoi moliyaviro zakotchii kalon meburd. Devonbegikho dar ikhtiyori u budand. Masalakhoi khadyadikhi va inonbakhshi dar ikhtiyori parvonachi budand. Ba korkhoi chosusi kukaltosh zamon rokhbari mekard. To zamoni SHokhmurod idorakhoi kabuli arzu shikoyat mavchud nadosht, binobar in, khukmi qozi kati va radnashavanda bud.
YAke az vazifakhoi khosro Rais yo khud mukhtasib ichro mekard. Vay ba rioya rasmu oini dini islom, khondani namoz va giriftani ruza nazorat mekard. Az solkhoi 30-yumi asri XIX baze vazifakhoi Kushbegi ba ikhtiyori Rais guzoshtand. Nufuzi Rais dar idorakunii davlat baland gardidU siyosati khorichii davlatro muayn mekard. Barkaror kardani munosibat bo davlatkhoi khorichi va tain kardani safiron ba ikhtiyori Rais guzoshta shud.
Masalai tartiboti chamiyati (vazifai polisiyaro) dar ikhtiyori Kurboshi yo mukhtasib (bazan mirshab) guzoshta shuda budand. Masalai taqsimoti ob dar dasti mirob bud, ki dar sharoiti Osiyoi Miyona dar ziroatkori sakhmi asosi bozy mekard.
Dar amorati Bukhoro va khonigarii Kand roniyon dar hayoti siyosi sahmi kalon doshtand. Gayr az in, dar davlathoi feodali Osiyoi Miyona zakotchii kalon, qozikalon,
sardoroni viloyatho (hokim, bek, nokib, sarkor, amin, dakha, sada, mirob va gayrakho) mansabdoroni asosi dar zinai davlatdori ba khisob meraftand.
Az jihati mamuri davlat ba bekigariho (az chumla Bukhoroi SHarki – kismi markazi va chanubii imruzai Tochikison) ba viloyatho va tumanho taqsim meshudand.

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Jubron Halil Jubron

JUBRON HALIL JUBRON yake az  navisandagoni ovozadori arab buda,  soli 1883 dar dehai Bashrai Lubnon  …

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