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SUNNAT VA HADISHO

Sunnat (az kal. araby-“istanna”- nashr va muqarrar kardani qoidavu qonun, hamchunin ba manii anana va rasmu odoti guzashtagon)-yake az sarchashmahoi asosii mazhaby va huquqy (shari)-i musalmonon buda, manii istilohii on majmui ahkom, qoidavu qonun, muqarrarotest, ki dar asosi guftor, raftoru kirdor va tarzi zindagii Payombari islom (s) vaz shudaand.

Dar ibtido jomeai islomy faqat yak sarchashma va manbai diniyu huquqy Quronro dosht. Hamai masoili peshomadaro dar asosi on hallu fasl mekardand. Vale dar barobari gustarish yoftani domanai jugrofiyovii islom, dar asari fathu kishvarhoi hamsoya va durdast, bayni solhoi 632-751 m., alalkhusus kishvarhoe, ki nisbat ba arob doroi tamadduni peshrafta budand va bo paydoishi masoili ijtimoiyu siyosy va huquqie, ki paydo kardani javob ba onho az Quron mumkin nabud, zarurat ba sarchashmai nave baroi halli onho ba miyon omad. Dar asosi hamin zaruratho sunna tashakkul meyobad.

hadis-kitobArabho dar kishvarhoi fathgardidai Osiyoi Hurd, Osiyoi Markazy va Afriqoi SHimoly bo jomeahoi peshrafta, doroi munosibathoi khele murakkabi iqtisodi, ijtimoi va madanii nisbatan qadim va mutaraqqi duchor shudand. Dar in mamolik (makhsusan dar Eron, Suriya, Misr va sarzaminhoi digari sobiq zeri hokimiyati Rumu Eron) munosibathoi zamindori, kashovarzi, hayoti shahri va umuman qonuni moliyu iqtisodi va ham tashkiloti davlatiyu siyosi nazar ba zindagii soddayu badavii arob beandoza murakkab budand. Hulosa, musalmonon ba yak qator masalaho va talabote duchor shudand, ki ba onho az Quron javobi ravshan paydo kardan nametavonistand. In ast, ki zarurat ba barrasii guftor va raftori Payombar (s), omuzishi kornomai u ba miyon omad. Hamin tavr tadrijan zarurati hukmu qazovati in yo on masalai nazari yo amali dar asosi muqoisa va muqobila bo koru amali Payombar (s) va tariqai halli masoili shabehi on az tarafi u, yane Sunnati Rasululloh rivoj paydo mekunad. Sunnai musalmonon dar zaminai hadisho vaz va tashakkul yoftaast.

XADIS ( az kal. arabi- haddasa- hikoyat yo naql kardani hodisa va yo voqeae) yake az sarchashmahoi khattii islom ast. Dar manii makhsusi istilohi hadis rivoyat yo akhbori naqlshuda oid ba guftor, raftor va amali Payombari islom Muhammad (s) ast. Hadisho doroi mavzuoti vase buda, az onho ahkomi mazhabii ibodati, khudoshinosi, ahkomi huquqi, normahoi madaniyu maishi va muqarraroti akhloqi va tarzi zindagiro metavon istinbot kard. Bazan in yo on nishondodho va yo ahkomi quroni niz dar asosi hadisho aniq karda meshavand. Hadishoe hastand, ki kharakteri tarikhi dorand yo sof masoili fiqhiro faro megirand. Hadishoi tarikhi dar borai juziyoti hayotu zindagii Payombar (s), sahobaho, havodisi sadri islom, sharoiti nuzuli in yo on oyoti quroni malumot medihand. YAke az muhimtarin mavzuoti hadishoi nabavi masoili manaviyu akhloqi meboshand. Metavon guft, dar onho behtarin durdonahoi manaviyu akhloqii insoniyat az zaboni Payombari islom(s) bayon shudaand.

Malum ast, ki dar tarikhi islom to maqomi sarchashmai asosii islom bad az Quronro kasb kardani Sunna, ki dar zaminai hadishoi payombar(s) ba vujud omada, zamoni muayyane sipari shuda ast. Dar sarchashmahoi mutabari ahli sunnat omadaast, ki bo vujudi sayu kushish va shavqu havasi benaziri ashob va yoroni Payombar(s) dar kitobat va hifzi sira va sunnati on hazrat, muddate dar zamoni khilofati Abubakr (r) va Umar(r) jamovari va naqli ahodisi nabavi man karda shuda bud. Sababi asosii maslihati siyosi va aqida bar kifoyati Quron «Kafono Kitobuloh» buda ast. In holat taqriban yak asr, to zamone, ki Umar ibni Abdulaziz (soli 99 h.), ba khilofat rasid idoma dosht.

Dar zaminai zarurati girdovari va shinokhti voqean ba Payombar (s) taalluq doshtan yo nadoshtani hadisho i l m i h ad i s ba vujud omad. Azbaski hadishoi jali (sokhta) bisyor shudand va farq kardani hadishoi voqei az sokhta khelo mushkil gardida bud, ilmi hadisshinosi ba miyon omad. Muhaddisin hadishoro ba yak chand martaba taqsim kardaand va boetimodi onhoro “s a h e h” nomidaand. SHarti saheh budani hadisho on ast, ki onho az sarchashmai mutabar: naqlkunandai boetimod az ahli khonavoda, nazdikon, sahobahoi Payombar (s)boshand va tamomi silsilai naqlkunandagon niz shakhsoni malum va maruf boyad boshand. Zarurati shinokhti shakhsiyati guyandagon, noqilon, roviyoni hadis ilmi ” m a r i f a t i r i j o l”- ro ba vujud ovard.

Ba jamovarii hadisho shakhsiyathoi marufi ziyode mashgul shudaand, ki onhoro m u h a d d i s menomand. Maruftarin muhaddisin va kitobho- majmuahoi ahodis inhoyand:

1– Sardaftari muhaddisoni marufi ahli sunnat va jamoat Muhammad Ismoil Jafar-al-Bukhoroi (810-870)buda, majmui ahodisi girdovardai uro “al- Jomeus- saheh” yo mukhtasar ” as-Sahehi Bukhori” menomand.

Balandi va buzurgii maqomi Muhammad ibni Ismoil Jafaral Bukhori dar on ast, ki u nakhustin shuda, masalai shinokhti hadishoi saheh az hadishoi jaliro ba miyon guzoshta, usulu ravishi ilmi hadis yo hadisshinosi, marifati rijolro va digar talaboti in ilmro poyarezi namuda. «Jomeussaheh» dar barobari sahehi va ori budan az ahodisi zaif, avvalin majmuai hadishoi mavzui va doroi nazmu tartibi khos meboshad. Ismoili Bukhori dar majmuai «Jomeus-saheh» hamchun poyaguzori ilmi hadis usuli intiqodiro ba kor girifta, az bayni 600 hazor hadise, ki dar on zamon maruf bud va 200 hazor hadise, ki khudash jamovari karda bud 7275­7397 hadisro hamchun hadishoi saheh intikhob kardaast. Agar hadishoi takrorshudaro ikhtisor kunem “Sahehi Bukhori” hamagi 2602 hadis dorad. Muhammad Ismoili Bukhori baroi jamovari va shinosoii in hadisho shonzdah sol zahmat kashidaast.

Muhimtarin afzaliyati in majmuai hadisho on ast, ki dar on bo usuli musannaf, yane ahodis az rui mavzuho ba kitobho va har kitobe ba bobho tabaqabandi shudaand. «Jomeus-saheh» az 98 kitob 3450 bob iborat ast. To zamoni u jamovari hadis ba tartibi «al-musnad», yane nomi noqiloni on (rijoli hadis) bud. Usuli musannaf ba Bukhori imkoniyat dod, ki hadishoi mavzuoti gunogunro az akhloq, fiqhi, tarikhi to tibu behdoshti dar in majmua jamovari kunad.

«Sahehi Bukhori» ba ittifoqi nazari hamai musalmonon sahehtarin kitob bad az Quroni Karim ast va ba khotiri ahmiyate, ki dorad dar tuli qarnhoi guzashta, hamesha mavridi tavajjuhi khosi ulamoyu fuqaho qaror doshta, ba on ziyoda az sad sharhu taliq va hoshiya navishta shudaast.

  • Imom Abu al-Hasan Muslim ibni Hajjoji Qushayrii Nishopuri (817-875) meboshad, majmuai hadishoi u bo nomi “Sahehi Muslim”( yo”al JameulSaheh“) maruf ast. Hamroh bo majmuai Bukhori majmuai nomburdai Nishopuriro ” Sahehayn “, yane du saheh menomand. Miqdori hadishoi “asSahehi Muslim”ro, baze 12000 barkhe digar 7275 hadis muayyan kardaand. U ba 625 tan noqiloni hadis istinod, yane murojiat va az qavli onho hadisho girdovari kardaast, ki Bukhori ba onho istinod nakardaast.
  • Abu Dovud Sulaymon ibni Ashosi Azdii Siistoni (817-889) majmuai hadishoi u bo nomi “Sunnani Abu Dovud” maruf ast.”Sunnan”i u 4800 hadis dorad, ba qavli khudash onro az miyoni 500 000 hadis barguzidaast.
  • Ibni Moja Abdullo Muhammad ibni YAzidi Qazvini, majmui hadishoi sahehie bo nomi Sunani ibn Moja” girdovari karda, ki 4000 hadis dorad.
  • Hofiz Abu Iso Muhammad ibni Iso az Zahhok Tirmizi (208-279kh.q.), bo nomi ” Jomei Tirmizi” (yo al-“JomeusSaheh“) majmuai ahodise girdovari kardaast.
  • Abu Abdurahmon Ahmad ibni SHuayb ibni Ali Nasoi (vaf.303), meboshad, ki majmuae bo nomi “Sunani Nasoi” az u boqist.

Inhoyand murattibon va majmuahoi shash sahehi (sihohussita)-i ahli sunnat va jamoat. Ba gayr az in boz hadishoe az tarafi raviyai shiai isnoashari (duvozdahimoma) dar “Akhbor» i onho jamovari shudaand, ki on asosan chor majmuai mashhur ast:

alKofi filusul valfuru”i SHaykh Muhammad ibni YAqub Qulaynii Varominii Rozi (vaf.328 h.q.),

Man lo yahzuruhu alfaqih“-i SHaykh Sadduq Muhammad ibni Bobveyhi Qumi ( vaf.381 h.q.),

“atTahzib” yo “Tahzibulahkom”, va “alIstibsor” har du az shaykhuttoifa Abujafar Muhammad ibni Hasani Tusi (vaf.460 h.q.) meboshad.

CHunon ki guftem hadishoro dar ilmi hadis tabaqabandi kardaand, on majmuahoe, ki yod namudem, hadishoi saheh budand. Ba gayr az in muhaddisin boz du nav hadis h a s a n va z a i fro tayin namudaand. Saheh on ast, ki sanadu noqilon ( shakhsoni naqlkunanda) bovaribakhsh, muttasil va maruf boshand. Hasan on ast, ki makhraji on malum boshad va roviyoti on mashhur. Zaif on ast, ki sharoiti saheh va hasanro nadorad. In ast mukhtasar dar borai Sunnat va ilmi hadis.

Ilmi hadis va hadisshinosi niz yake az dastovardhoi tamadduni islomi buda, baroi boy gardidani maorifi islom, rushdi ilmi fiqh, akhloq va ilohiyot naqshi muassir bozidaast. Donistani ilmi hadis baroi ulamoi din, faqehon va onhoe, ki islomro durust shinokhtan mekhohand hatmist. Dar asosi hadisho doirai sunnati islom muayyan karda shudaast.

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