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SHahri Makka dar Arabiston

SHAHRI MAKKA gahvorai islom, niz az hej guna sokhtori siyosii muvofiq ba fahmi imruzai mo barkhurdor nabud. Dar on asosan qabilai Quraysh bartari dosht. YAgona tashkiloti siyosii qabila shuroi shaykhoni qabila ba shumor meraft, ki baroi hallu fasli ikhtilofhoi bayni qabilaviyu avlodi goh-goh dar mahalle bo nomi “Dorunnadva” jam meshudaand. In shuro niz aksaran hukmi mashvarati doshtaast na qonuni va qonunguzori. In nuqta khelo muhim ast, chunki hamin vaziyat badan sarnavishti dini navro az bisyor jihat muayn mekunad.

makka

Makka az jumlai shahrho va obodihoe bud, ki hanuz dar zamonhoi pesh az kushoda shudani rohhoi obi, dar sari shohrohhoi korvonguzar ba vujud omadand. SHoyad dar ibtido sababi tavaqqufi korvonho va raddu badalshudani onho az injo hamon chashmai Zamzam boshad, ki badan yake az tabarrukoti islom gardid va ohista-ohista dar atrofi on binohoi shahr qomat afrokhtand. Aksari chunin shahrhoi miyonrohi \tranzit\ bo kushoda shudani rohhoi obi va kamahmiyat shudani rohhoi korvoni kharob gardida, az bayn raftand. Tanho baze ki imkoni idomai hayot doshtand, boqi mondand. Dar in shumor shahri Makkaro niz metavon nom burd. Onro hanuz Batlimus \Ptolemey s. 150 m.\ bo nomi Makoraba \ muqaddasgoh\ yod kardaast.\ 16: 87\

Tarikhi bunyodi Makkaro \ nakhust hamchun deha\ ba miyonahoi asri V melodi niz nisbat dodaand, ki khelo shubhanok ast.\ 26: 45\ Agar rivoyathoi mazhabiro dar borai bunyodi Makka ba inobat girem, tibqi on asosguzori shahri Makka Ibrohimi Halilulloh va pisarash Ismoil budaand. Dar Quron Makka bo nomhoi ” Makka”, ” Bakka”,”Ummul-quro”, ” Baladul-amin” yod shudaast. \ Nigar Quron (minbad Q.) surai ( minbad sur.), Oli Imron-96-97\ ” Avvalin khonae, ki \ baroi ibodati\ odamon bino shud hamon khonai Makka ast, ki dar on barakat va hidoyati olamiyon ast. Dar on khona nishonahoi ravshan huvaydost, ki Maqomi Ibrohim ast, har ki dar on jo dokhil shavad, dar amon boshad.”

Imruz shakhsi tarikhi budani Ibrohim va zamoni zindagii u isbot shudaast.\ 31: 329-330\ Pas tarikhi bunyodi Makka ham khele kuhan az asri V melodi meboshad. Tarikhi hijrati Ibrohimro az navohii Bobil, ba mintaqai janubu garbii Jaziratul-Arab hududi solhoi 1900 pesh az melod qabul shudaast. Pas bunyodi Kaba tibqi in rivoyatho hududi hazorsolai duyum \1900-1800 t. m.\ rost meoyad. Hamin aqidai moro muallifi kitobi “Hotam-ul-anbiyo” SHaykh Muhammad Abuzuhra niz qablan bayon kardaast.\ 11: 76\ Dar Makka avval avlodi Ismoil va qabilai Jurhum mezistaand va dar hududi asri III melodi onhoro qabilai Bani Huzoa tang karda idorai Makkaro ba dasti khud megirand. Hududi solhoi 400-450 m. qabilai Quraysh riyosati Makkaro sohib meshavad.

Muhimtarin omili misli digar shahrhoi miyonrohi kharob nagardidani shahri Makka, shoyad ba sharofati dar on joygir shudani buzurgtarin mabadi butparaston khonai Kaba boshad. Onro “beytil”– «khonai khudo» meshumoridand. Kaba na tanho mabad, balki baroi Makka, pesh az hama, manbai asosii iqtisodiyu moli bud. Dar barobari Kaba, dar kanori on kame berun az shahr, manbai digari hayoti, bozori Ukoz va chand bozori digar niz joygir shuda bud, ki badaviyoni arab dar yak vaqt hangomi hajj ham ziyorati butho- khudoyoni khud va ham tijorat menamudand. Arob mohhoe, ki dar on hajj mekardand, mohhoi harom (ashhurul-harom) nom dosht dar in mohho harguna nizo va janghoi qabilavi harom (mamnu) elon shuda bud. Hojiyon ba mintaqai haram (muqaddas)-i Makka bo libosi makhsusi safed ihrom biduni asliha va digar oloti jangi dokhil meshudand. SHahri Makka, chunon ki guftem, beobu darakht va baroi ziroatu dehqoni nomuvofiq bud. Asosi maoshu zindagii aholii onro tijorat va daromade, ki az hojiyoni khonai Kaba megiriftand, tashkil mekard.

Digar shahrhoi buzurgi Arabistoni markaziyu garbi, yake shahri Tayif bud, ki dar hududi sad kilometrii janubu sharqii Makka va digare YAsrib (Madina) bud, ki dar 350 km. shimoli Makka qaror doshtand. In du shahr doroi sharoiti behtari tabii va obu havoi ba ziroat muvofiq budand. Baze sarvatmandoni Makka dar Tayif boghovu nakhlistoni khudro doshtand. Aholii in shahrho hanuz irtiboti khudro az zindagonii badavi purra nakanda, ba chorvodori niz qisman mashgul va aksar doroi ramahoi shutur va gusfandon budaand. Hamchunin, munosibatho va qonunhoi nonavishtai qabilaviyu avlodi, ki khosi badaviyon ast, bo vujudi shahrnishin budanashon dar bayni onho amal mekard.

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