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TAHAVVULI BUDDOIYA

Pas az vafoti Buddo shogirdonash talimoti uro intishor va takmilu tadvin namudaand. Majmui talimoti u dar kitobi muqaddas «Tripitaka»(« Se sabad hikmat») jamovari gardid. YAk asr bad dar dokhili buddoiya ikhtilofot sar zadand. In ikhtilofho rui masalai sabuk kardani yak qator talaboti shariati buddoiya budand. Dar natija buddoiya ba du firqa: tkheravadarohi piron, ki mukholifonashon khinayana(«arobai ducharkhai khurd», ki rohi borik, mahdud) menomand va makhayana («arobai ducharkhai kalon», ki rohi vasei najot ast) taqsim shud. In hodisa dar hududi soli 200 t.m. to 200 m. rukh dod. Dar tuli in muddat va minbad dar dokhili buddoiya boz 16 firqai nav paydo shudand, ki in buddizmi ibtidoiro ba kulli tagir dod.

budoiyaDar Tibetu Muguliston badtar raviyai navi buddoiya lama (lamaizm) dar zaminai talimoti makhayana va vajrayana (arobai almosi) tashakkul yoft.

Dar tarikhi tahavvuli budizm va intishori on berun az Hinduston naqshi sulolai Guptho (s.200t.m.)va shokhanshokh Ashoka (269-232 tm)khele buzurg ast.

Dar ayni zamon yak qator firqavu jarayonhoi navi buddoiya bo nomhoi dzenbuddizm, neobuddizm va yo metabuddizm ba vujud omadaand. Buddizm imruz dar aksari kishvarhoi Osiyoi Janubu SHarqi: Hitoy, Jopun, Kuriya, Vetnam, Tayvan, SHirilanka,Kambujiyo va gra pahn shuda, naqshi muhimi ijtimoiyu siyosi mebozad. Tarikh va farhangi guzashtayu imruzai in kishvarho az bisyor jihat ba dini buddoiya vobasta ast.

Dar khotima bad az shinosoi bo dinhoi oriyonii Hinduston metavon guft, ki dar in olami manavii ranginkamon sarmoyai garonbahoi tamadduni insoni nuhuftast. Dinhoi dar in sarzamini asil bunyod gardida, aksaran khususiyati irfoni doshta, dar poyai riyozat va tazkiyavu sofkorii nafs asos yoftaast. Dinhoi hinduoriyoi harchand az nazari ilohiyot gunogunand va az shirku bisyorkhudoi girifta to shinokhti nakhust poyahoi tavhid «-monizm»- vahdat va vahdoniyati olami hasti va zoti ilohi(-vahdati vujud) merasad, vale muhimtarin khususiyati adyoni hindu-oriyoi, ba aqidai mo, insonmadori va akhloqmehvarii onhost. YAne dar markazi talimoti in adyon masalai najoti nafs, inson va akhloqiyoti vay qaror dorad.

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