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TAHAVVULI MAZHABIYU SIYOSI SHIA VA FIRQAHOI ON

CHunon ki guftem, pas az vafoti Payombari islom (s) chize naguzashta bud va hatto , hanuz uro gur nakarda budand, ki ikhtilof dar atrofi masalai jonishini u, yane dar masalai intikhobi kh a l i f – shakhsi jonishin, idomadihandai kori Payombar (s), peshvo va rohbari siyosi va mazhabii ummati islomi ba vujud omad. Ziddiyat bayni chand guruh bud. YAke muhojiron , onhoe ki az Makka ba Madina hijrat karda budand, digare a n s o r , onhoe ki Muhammadro (s) ba Madina davat karda, ba u payvastand va baroi difo az jonu molash paymon basta budand, seyum onhoe budand, ki tarafdorii khalif az khonadoni Muhammad(s) mekardand, yane tarafdoroni Ali ibn Abutolib(r) amakbachcha va domodi Muhammad(s) budand. Hudi Payombar (s) bevosita ba tarzi ravshanu oshkoro pesh az vafotash, agar hadisi Gadiri Humro va chand mavridi digare, ki ahli tashshayu ba onhohkhamchun sanadi tayini khalif ishora kardaand, ba inobat nagirem, kasero ba joi khud tayin nakarda bud, faqat dar chand ruzi bemorii u Abubakr simmati imomati namozro dar masjid doshta, on ham ba hurmati kalonsoliash.

Muhammad ibn Abdulkarimi SHahristoni harchand dar borai firqai shia tanho dar bobi shashumi kitobash malumot dodaast. Ammo dar ogozi kitob ba tartib dar borai ikhtilofhoi avvalin sukhan meguyad va dar qatori avvalin ikhtilofho, ki barshumoridaast muhimtarin ikhtilof, ki badan sababi judoi dar islom shud, imomat niz hast, ki u onro hamchun panjumin ikhtilof bayon kardaast. Boyad guft, ki harchand zaminai ikhtilof va judoi, chunon, ki guftem, bilo fosila bad az vafoti Muhammad(s) ba miyon omad, judoi va ziddiyati shadidi siyosi dar zamoni khilofati khalifi seyum Usmon(r) (solhoi 644-658) zohir shuda, tamomi davrai khilofati umaviyon ru ba afzoish bud. Noriziyatii ommai vasei mardum va alalkhusus mardumii kishvarhoi gayri arabii istiloshuda va dar rasi on eroniyon zaminai ijtimoii in ziddiyatro tashkil kardand va nihoyat bo dastgirii eroniyon, ki garoishi shia doshtand, khilofati Ummaviyon bo khilofati Abbosiyon ivaz gardid.

Harchand Ali (r)pas az qatli Usmon ( az soli 658-661 ) ba khilofat rasid, vale pas az qatli u (s.661) boz to soli 750 okhirin soli hokimiyati Marvoni duyum khilofat dar dasti ummaviyon boqi bud.

Dar tarikhi mazhabi shia fojiai Karbalo, ki dar on pisari duyumi Ali Husayn(r)bo khonavoda va hamrohonash ba dasti sarlashkari YAzid ibn Muoviya- Sad ibni Vaqqos kushta shud, khele hodisai hamosii tasirnok ast va dar tashakkuli shia naqshi ziyod dorad. Ba sari hokimiyat omadani Abbosiyon niz shurishu ziddiyathoi payravoni Aliro khomush nagardond va ba khulafoi avvali abbosi chandin bor lozim omad, ki in shurishhoro pakhsh kunand.

Avvalin doiyoni mashhuri mazhabi tashayu Abuzari Jaffori, Miqdod ibni Asvad va Salmoni Forsi budand. Dar korkardi asosi nazariyavii imomat Abdulloh ibni Sabboh , ki aslan yakhudi bud sahmi ziyod guzoshtaast. Abdulloh ibn Sabboh aqida dosht, ki Muhammad (s) namurdaast va u misli Esoi Maseh bozmegardad va Ali dar zamoni gaybati u vasi- jonishini qonunii ust. Imomat az didi ahli tashayu amri ilohist va nametavonad intikhobi boshad va on chun payombari az irodai Hudo vobasta ast. Onho baroi asosnok kardani in aqidai khud nazariyae kor kardaand, ki tibqi on dar Ali (r) niz chun dar Muhammad (s) nuri ilohi asar namuda va az u ba avlodi u vorid gardida, az in ru imomat faqat merosi metavonad boshad. Ahli sunnat in aqidaro qabul nadorand va imomatro intikhobi meshumorand.

Farqi etiqodiyu sharii ahli shia bo ahli sunnat va jamoat nochiz ast. Onho niz ba Hudoi islom Alloh va Ppyombari u Mukhammad(s) etiqodu imon dorand va “aliparast” guftani onho, chunon ki dar bayni sunniho roij ast, durust nest. Hamchunin shia kitobi muqaddasi islom Huron va sunnati Rasuli Hudoro qabul dorand, tanho ba qavli onho hangomi tahriri usmoni dar baze oyathoe, ki sukhan az imomati Ali ibn Abutolib (r)merafta yo dalolat ba on mekarda, tahrif yo hazf shudaand va dar sunnat tanho ba hadishoe etimod qoiland, ki az qavli sahobahoi nazdiki Muhammad(s) yo ahli bayt-khonadoni vay naql shuda boshand. Majmui inchunin hadishoro a kh b o r menomand. Gayr az akhbor hamchun sarchashmai manaviyu akhloqi majmuai guftaho va khutbahoi Ali (r) bo nomi “Nahjat -ul- balogat”-ro dorand. Dar bayon va sharhi usuli din, chunon ki qablan guftem, baze tafovutho mavjud ast.

Farqhoi juzii tafsili chun dar matni a z o n dakhil shudani “Ashhadu anna Aliyun valiyul-lohi” pas az shahodati risolati Muhammad, va tarzi adoi namoz, ziyorati joyhoi muqaddas va idu marosimho niz mavjudand. Mujoz donistani t a q i ya pinhon namudani asli etiqod va tazohur, az farqiyathoi bayni shiavu sunni meboshand. Ammo farqi asosi, chunon ki guftem, hamon nazariya (doktrina)-i imomat ast, ki bo nomi ” Imomat va viloyati faqeh” yak nazariyai mukammali fiqhi, falsafiyu siyosii islom az didgokhi shia ast. YAke az marosimhoe, ki dar shia khele arzish dorad marosimi sugvori \taziya\ baroi fojiai shahodati imomi seyum Husayn (s.609) meboshad. On nihoyat bo shuru hayajon dar dahai avvali mohi muharram meguzarad. Alalkhusus ruzhoi nuhum va dahumi on, ki ba arabi “tosuo” va “oshuro” guyand, khele tasirbakhsh va bo ehsosoti baland, zanjirzani va khokbarsarkuni va sahnahoi teotrii on fojia meguzarad. Dar tuli in muddat dar masojid jalasahovu khutbahoi taziyati, marsiyakhonivu ravzakhoni tashkil karda meshavad.

Firqi shia dar navbati khud dar natijai ikhtilofoti dokhili ba chandin firqa taqsim gardida ast. Firqhoi asosii on: q a y s o n i ya, z a y d i ya, i m o m i ya, i s n o a sh a r i ya, g u l o t va i s m o i l i ya meboshand. Ba qavli SHakhristoni dar usuli etiqod bazei onho ba sui mutazila, baze ba sui ahli sunnat va baze ba mushabbihin (antropomorfistho) mayl mekunand. Dar bayni in firqahoi tanho gulot \ifrotgaro\ va yo “aliillohiyon”-ro metavon “aliparast” nomid, chun onho Aliro ba darajae bolo mebarand, ki az payombar afzaltar va hatta uro ba martabai Hudoi merasonand.

Guruhi asasii shiayonro imomiyai isnoashari (duvozdahimoma) tashkil mekunand. SHajarai imomon dar in firqa az Ali ibn Abutolib ( 661) ogz gardida ba tartibi zayl ast:2-Hasan (vaf.s.669);3-Husayn (shahodat s. 680); 4- Ali Zaynul Obiddin \vaf.s.712); 5- Muhammad al-Boqir (vaf.s. 721) \- pisari digari Zaynul- Obiddin Zayd asosguzori firqavu mazhabi zaydiya ast. \; 6. Jafari Sodiq (vaf.s. 765); 7-Musoi Kozim (vaf.s. 797) pisari digari imom Jafari Sodiq Ismoil asasguzori firqa va mazkhabi ismoiliya\; 8- Alii Rizo (vaf.s.818); 9-Muhammadi Javvod (vaf.s.835); 10-Alii Naqi (vaf. s.863); 11-Hasani Askari (vaf.s.874); 12- Muhammad Mahdii Muntazir (gaybat s.878).

Muvofiqi etiqodi shiayon imomi duvozdahum Mahdi namurdaast, balki goib shudadaast va dar okhirzamon barmegardad va adolatro poydor mesozad. Vujudi chunin aqida dar shia yak burhoni digare dar mavridi tahavvul va takomuli tabiii dinho az hisobi yak digar va bovari ba nihoyati nekbinona (optimisti) doshtani adyon nisbat ba taqdiri jomiai insoni ast. Dar in mavrid shakhsiyati imom Mahdi dar shia shabohati ziyode bo shakhsiyati Isoi Maseh dar dini nasroni dorad.

CHunon ki gufta shud imomat dar mazhabi shia dar qatori nubuvvat maqomi balande dorad. Imom niz misli nabi (payombar) mukallaf az tarafi Hudo-Alloh ast. YAne maqomi siyosivu ruhonii imom taqdir shuda az tarafi Hudost. Imom dar shia mazhari “ismat”-poki va begunohi ba shumor meraved. Muvofiqi nazariyai siyosii imomat “viloyat”- hukumati siyosi boyad bad az gaybati Mahdi ba dasti faqehi mujtahid guzarad. Va muvofiqi nazariyai viloyati faqeh vay niz doroi yak qator sifathovu qobiliyathoi akhloqivu siyosii barguzidaast.

Darchand mazhabi shia dar avvali paydoishi manshai arabi dosht, badtar on baroi eroniyon behtarin chatri ideologie baroi muboriza bo arab va siyosati arabikunonii ummaviyon gardid, onro eroniyon ba ormon va ahdofi siyosii khud sozgor yoftand va qabulu rivoj dodand, nihoyat dar natijai muborizai quvvahoi mukholif, ki dar on naqshi asosiro,chunon ki guftem, eroniyon mebozidand khilofati Abbosiya sari kor omad, ki dar dastgokhi idorii on vuzaroi eronh az Oli Barmak naKshi mukhim mebozidand. Dar asri XVI mazkhabh shia maKomi dini davlatii Eronro kasb mekunad. Vale dar asari taassubi shiagaroii SHokh Ismoili Safavh, ki dar Bajdod va digar navokhii sunninishin rokh andokht, man fikr mekunam, yagona shonsi tarikhii ba dasti eroniyon guzashtani khilofati islom az dast raft va az on turkoni usmonh, ki hamchun homii ahli tasannun zuhur kardand, istifoda namuda, laiomi khilofatro ba dast giriftand va to asri XIX, to zamoni az tarafi Mustafo Kamol (Otaturk) ba kham poshida shudani osori khilofati islom va tashkili Jumhurii Turkiya, hokimiyat kardand. Imruz mazkhabh shia dini rasmii Iumkhurii Islomii Eron meboshad, ki soli 1979 dar natiiai inKilobi islomii Eron ba sari Kudrat omad. Dar in inKilob naKshi rokhbarikunandai rukhoniyati shia bo sarvarii Oyatullokh Uzmo Humaynh (1900-1989) nikhoyat buzurg bud. Bad az inKilob dar Eron, shoyad nakhustin bor dar tarikhi shia, tamomi umuri idorh, farkhangh va iitimoiyu iKtisodh va siyosh islomh karda shud va voKean davlati sof islomii shia takhaKKuK paziruft.

Xoriiiya – yake az on firKakhoest, ki dar asari ikhtilofi siyosh ba vuiud omadaast. Tarikhi paydoishi firKai khoriiiya- ro bidatnigoroni islomh ba natijai mukhoribai bayni sipokhi Alh ibn Abitolib va khokimi Suriya Muoviya dar makhale bo nomi Siffin (s. 657) surat girifta, vobasta mekunand, vale dar mavridi az chi iborat budani asli ikhtilof ittifoKi nazar vuiud nadorad. YAke az rivoyatkho chunin ast, ki guyo dar mukhoribai nomburda, hangomi jang sipokhi Alh nazdik bud sipokhi Muoviyaro toru mor kunad, vale tarafi Muoviya bo rokhi makr ba sari nayzakhoi iangovaronash varaqhoi ^uronro khalonda, khokhoni bo rokhi guftushunid dar asosi ,1uron va sunnati payjambar khal kardani ikhtilof shud va dar guftu shunid niz bo makru hilla namoyandai Muoviya Amr ibni Os masalaro ba manfiati Muoviya hallu fasl kardand. Az in hodisa yak guruhi hazor nafarh norozh shuda, az sipokhi Alh khorii shudand va “khorijiya” nom giriftand.

Mukhimtarin ikhtilofi onkho bo mazkhabi shia rui masalai imomat ast. Horiiiyon mutaKidand, ki imom metavonad jayri Kurayshh boshad. TibKi aKidai onkho khar yak musalmone, ki onkho sazovor donand, khokh julom, khokh ozod, khokh nabath, khokh Kurayshh, metavonad imom boshad. YAne, khoriiiyon barobarii musalmonon va dar umuri rakhbarh va imomat intikhobh budani in maKomro talab mekardand. Hamin aKidai onkho sababi zud intishor yoftan va payravoni ziyod paydo kardani onkho gardid. Ikhtilofi digari onkho az khamon ziddiyat oid ba Kazovati Siffin sarchashma megirad va meguyand: ” Tankho Allokh metavonad Kazovat va khukm kunad” va ba khamin dalel khukmu Kazovati odamonro etirof namekunand.

Horiiiyon imomati Abubakru Umarro mepazirand vale imomati Usmonro rad mekardand, az amali Alh dar makhali Siffin norozh khastand. Baze az onkho, masalan a z r a K i ya Usmon, Talkha, Zubayr khatto Oisha khamsar va Abdullokh ibni Abbos amaki payjambarro makhkumi duzakh va azobi abadh meshumorand. Onkho iikhodro ba muKobili mukholifonashon, chi musalmon va chi jayri musalmon, ioiz medonand va mumini az iikhod ru toftaro kofir meshumorand. Kushtani zanon va kudakoni mukholifini khudro iiozat dodaand. SHakhsi gunokhi kabira sodir karda va ashkhose, ki faroizi diniro iiro nakardaast va khatto yak gunokh kardaand, bo vuiudi etirofi vakhdoniyati Hudo va risolati Mukhammad kofir va makhkum ba otashi duzakh medonand. Onkho sangsor kardani shakhsi zino sodir karda va iazoi tuhmatkardaro bekor kardaand. Ba aKidai onkho khamrokhi mushrikon farzandoni onkho niz ba duzakh khokhand aftod. TaKiyaro na dar sukhan va na dar amal Kabul nadorand. Horiiiyon dar masalai sarkhushikho va khashomatu oroish sakht taassub dorand, tamokukashh va musiKiro man karda budand.

Dar masoili aKidath onho kuronro makhluKkmeshumorand, iimo va Kiyosro namepazirand. Surai “YUsuf”-ro rad mekardand va onro ba shani kitobi muKaddas muvofiK nameshumorand, chun dar on oid ba ishKu mukhabbati YUsuf bo zani misrh rivoyat shudaast. Ba aKidai khoriiiyon parvardigor metavonad payjambare firistad, ki vay bad az risolati khud kofir shavad yo pesh az risolat kofir boshad.

Avvalin namoyandagoni mashkhuri khoriiaya Ashas ibni Lays al-Kindh, Misar ibni FadaK at-Tamimi, Zayd ibni Husayn- at-Toh budand, ki ba muKobili Alh khurui kardand. Horiiiya niz bo mururi zamon ba chandin firKakhoi ifroth va miyonarav taKsim shudand va maruftarini onkho: a z r a K i ya, s u fr i ya, n a i d i ya, b a y h a s i ya, ai r a d i ya, s a l a b i ya i b o d i ya meboshand, ki dar navbati khud khar kadom boz ba chandin firKakhoi khurdtar taKsim shudaand.

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