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TAHAVVULOTI MAZHABII NASRONI

Malum, ki dini nasroni dar zaminai dini yahudiya ba vujud omad va asosguzori on Eso az yahudiyon bud. Ammo chun dini nasroni ohista-ohista berun az hududi millati yahud va Falastin nufuz kard va dar qalamravi imperiyai Rum gustarish yofta, kam-kam surati dini mustaqilro megirift.

shogirdoni-isoi-masehSHogirdoni Esoi Maseh dar jarayoni gustarishi dini nasroni masehiyoni khatnanashudaro, niz gusli tamid mekard. Badan havori Pavel zarurati rioyai shariati yahudi baroi nasroniyonro az bayn burd.

Pavelro dar voqe metavon duvumin muassisi masehiyat nomid. Jidu jahdi u dar rohi korkardi ilmi ilohi (teolujik) va islohi shariati on sabab shud, ki dini nasroni olamgir- dini jahoni gardid.[1]

Pavel az rui ananai nasroni dar oilai yahudii shahrvandi Rum, dar shahri Tarsi Osiyoi Hurd tavallud shudaast. U dar avval az onhoe buda, ki nasroniyonro taqib mekarda, vale badan yake az muballigoni fidokori dini nasroni dar Osiyoi Hurd gardid, ba nasroniyat khususiyati gayri milli dodaast.

Bad az Pavel tahavvuli nasroniyat az tariqi paydoishi firqaho va raviyaho surat megirad.

Barobari gustarish yoftani nasroniyat tarkibi ijtimoii payravoni dini nav niz tagir meyobad. Dar avvali asri IV imperiyai Rum siyosati himoyavu pushtiboni az in dinro pesh megirand. Nihoyat, soli 313 imperator Konstantin farmonero imzo kard, ki ba masehiyat chun dinhoi digar huquqi barobar medod va az pasi on soli 324 rasman dini masehiro dini rasmi-davlati elon kard.

Soli 325 melodi ba rayosati khudi imperator Konstantin avvalin anjuman (sobor)-i kalisohoi nasroni dar shahri Nikey shuda guzasht, ki dar rohi ustuvorii in din naqshi arzandae guzosht.

Hamzamon bo parokanda gardidani imperiyai Rum judoi dar dokhili kalisoi nasroni afzudan girift va dar natija on ba chor kalisoi khudmukhtor (aftokefalii): Konstantinopol, Iskandariya, Antiokh, Ierusalim taqsim gardid.

Bahsu munozirahoi badi aksaran dar atrofi mohiyati zoti Eso davr mezanad. Inson budan yo Hudo budani U. Tibqi talimoti nasroni «SHakhsiyati Eso murakkab az du unsur ast, yake unsuri ilohi va kholiqiyat, duvum unsuri insoniyat va makhluqiyat».[2] Dar natijai in ikhtilof raviyaho va firqahoe dar qismati sharqii imperiyai Rum ba vujud omadand, ki muhimtarini onho: ariyonho (Apiz),[3] Apullinariho (Aro1Npagi8),[4]Nasturiho (Iez^ogiz)[5], Monofizitho va YAqubitho ( ^asoIez)[6], Monotelitho (MopoI1e1Ie8)[7] [8]Ikonoborho (1sopos1a81e8)7 budand.

In ikhtilofho sababi on shud, ki soli 451 kalisohoi nasroni ba du qism/ sharqiyu garby taqsim shudand.

In ikhtilofi hosila bayni kalisoho badi taqsim shudani imperiyai Rum ba sharqiyu garbi (soli 395), rasman soli 1054, ba tashakkuli du raviyai buzurgi nasroniyat: Katoliki va Pravoslavi (ortodoksi sharqi) sabab shud.

Raviyai katoliki (az kal. yun. umumijahoni) yake az shokhaho- raviyahoi asosii dini nasroni buda, beshtar dar qismati garbii imperiyai Rum gustarish paydo kard. Kalisohoi katolikii Rum az buzurgtarin va bonufuztarin kalisoi nasroni dar Garb ba shumor meraft. Asosguzori onro khudi Apostol Petr mehisoband.

Dar asrhoi miyona kalisoi katoliki qudrati benihoyati siyosi va sarvati moddi dosht. Kalisoi katoliki dar muqoisa bo pravoslavy doroi yak markazi idory meboshad. Az in ru, kaliso dar asrhoi miyona Pop (Papa) dar haqiqat sultoni voqeii tamomi kishvarhoi magribzamin bud.

Masalan, dar soli 800 melodi taqriban az yak sevumi khoki Faronsa va hamchunin qismati ziyodi kishvari Olmon va Itoliyo dar tahti qalamravi kaliso qaror dosht. Dar in davra intikhob va az qudrat dur sokhtani imperator va shohoni in kishvarho bo dasti pophoi katolik surat megirift. Vale ba tadrij Papai Rim ba dastnishondai ashrofu ayoni itoliyovi tabdil yofta, az naqshu etibori ruhonivu akhloqii onho kosta meshavad.

Asosi talimoti kotulikhoro Navishtajoti Muqaddas va Akhbori Muqaddas tashkil mekunand. Etiqodnomai kotulikho etiqod bar on dorand, ki Ruhul-Quddus na tanho az Padar Hudo balki az Pisar Hudo niz barmeoyad.

Katolikho haft muqadasot: gusli tamid (kreshenie), ashoi rabboni, yane tanovuli nonu may (rus. prichashenie, lot. evkharistiya), taqdis (svyashenstvo), tavbavu iqror (pokayanie, ispoved), olammolidani (miropomazanie), nikoh va sanavbarsuzi (elosvyashenie)- ro etiro mekunand.

Dar borai naqshi ijtimoii kalisoi katolik dar asrhoi miyona ikhtilofi nazar hast. Az yak su muhaqiqon onro tarikhan, omili ejodi vahdati farhangii Avrupo bo vujudi parokandagii siyosi medonand. Az sui digar kalisoi katolik bo ejodi «Devoni taftishi aqoid (Inkvizisiya)» va janghoi salibii sharqiyu garbi az khud naqshi asorati manavi va siyosii nomatlube dar safhai tarikh guzoshtaast.

Sarvari asosii kalisoi kotulikho jonishini Esoi Maseh hokimiyati olii davlati Vatikon papai Rum meboshad. Dar holi hozir in mansabro shakhsi sobiq lahistoni kardinal Karol Voytila (tav.1920) ba uhda dorad, ki nomi Ioanno Pavel II girifta. Muvofiqi qarori anjumani I Vatikan, az soli 1870 papa poku begunoh ba shumor meravad.

Vatikon dar markazi Rum (masoh. 44 ga.,aholiash ziyoda 1 h. naf.) markazi katolikhoi jahon meboshad. Vatikon doroi tamomi atributhoi davlati: gerb, bayraq, gimn, pul, pochta, TV-radiyo, telegraf, matbuot va hatto miqdori muayyani gord va jandarm va rohi ohan (800 m) meboshad. Vatikon dar sozmonhoi jahoni va mamoliki Amriko namoyandagi va saforatkhonaho dorad. Az jumla, dar SMM va YUnesko noziron dorad. Sarvari in davlati kuchak Papa buda, baroi yakumr intikhob meshavad.

[1]      Jon Nos, Tarikhi jomeai adyon. S. 410.

– Havori (- apostol) – shogirdoni Esoi Maseh

[2]      Jon Nos. Tarikhi jomeai adyon.- S. 426.

[3]      In avvalin firqai navpo(- bidat)-i nasroni bud, ki dar Iskandariya ba vujud omada, onho munkiri azaliyati Maseh shudand, Masehro tanho odami muqaddas va pisarkhondai Hudo meshumoridand.

[4]    Payravoni usquf bo nomi Apollinarius buda, mutakidand, ki bashariyati Eso zohiri va gayri haqiqi ast.

[5]    Payravoni usqufi konstantiniya bo nomi Nasturius, buda janbai bashari va ilohii Masehro az ham judo medonand.

[6]      Inho payravi usquf YAqub, buda baroi Eso faqat yak janbai ilohi qoil budand va janbai basharii uro mahvshuda dar janbai ilohi medonistand

[7]      Inho firqae budand, ki Esoro doroi du janba, vale yak iroda medonistand.

[8]    In firqa dar qarni haftum va hashtum bar muqobili kashidan va dar kalisoho guzoshtani tasvirho va mujassamahoi dini budand.

Dar boramon

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